A woman has sex with a little boy
A female paedophile has been jailed for having sex with an eight-year-old boy more than fifty times. Loren Morris, 21, was 16 when she first slept with the schoolboy, who cannot be identified, and continued until he was ten years old. Morris, who has a child of her own, would have regular intercourse with the boy, now 14, and was only found out after he was overheard bragging about it at school. A judge today gave Morris a two-year prison sentence at Worcester Crown Court, following a trial last month where she was convicted of three counts of sexual intercourse with a child under 16. She could be seen smiling and smoking outside the court today as she awaited her sentence. The judge in the case told Morris that he would be lenient with the sentence - which will see her released from jail after one year - because she `realised it was wrong` and stopped having sex with the boy. West Mercia police said they started investigating Morris in March last year after the boy`s school told them that he had been heard bragging about having sex with her. Judge Robert Juckes QC said: `I make no secret of the fact your case has given me cause for much consideration. `I have come to the conclusion that due to the concern and embarrassment caused to both you and your family that you will not be offending again, let alone committing sexual offences. `I am also aware of the effect this will have on your baby. I am pleased to hear your parents have started to build bridges with you.
Many cultures have traditional customs to mark the " coming of age " of a girl or boy, to recognize their transition to adulthood, or to mark other milestones of their journey to maturity as children. Japan has a coming-of-age ritual called Shichi-Go-San (七五三), which literally means "Seven-Five-Three". This is a traditional rite of passage and festival day in Japan for three- and seven-year-old girls and three- and five-year-old boys, held annually on November 15. It is generally observed on the nearest weekend. On this day, the girl will be dressed in a traditional kimono , and will be taken to a temple by her family for a blessing ceremony. Nowadays, the occasion is also marked with a formal photo portrait. Some coming-of-age ceremonies are religious rituals to recognize a girl`s maturity with respect to her understanding of religious beliefs, and to recognize her changing role in her religious community. Confirmation is a ceremony common to many Christian denominations for both boys and girls, usually taking place when the child is in their teen years. In Roman Catholic communities, Confirmation ceremonies are considered one of seven sacraments that a Catholic may receive during their life. In many countries, it is traditional for Catholics children to undergo another sacrament, First Communion , at the age of 7 years old. The sacrament is usually performed in a church once a year, with children who are of age receive a blessing from a Bishop in a special ceremony. It is traditional in many countries for Catholic girls to wear white dresses and possibly a small veil or wreath of flowers in their hair to their First Communion. The white dress symbolizes spiritual purity. Many coming-of-age ceremonies are to acknowledge the passing of a girl through puberty, when she experiences menarche , or her first menstruation . The traditional Apache coming-of-age ceremony for girls is called the na`ii`ees (Sunrise Ceremony), and takes place over four days. The girls are painted with clay and pollen, which they must not wash off until the end of the rituals, which involve dancing and rituals that challenge physical strength. Girls are given teaching in aspects of sexuality, confidence, and healing ability. The girls pray in the direction of the east at dawn, and in the four cardinal directions, which represent the four stages of life. This ceremony was banned by the U.S. government for many decades; after being decriminalized by the Indian Religious Freedom Act in 1978, it has seen a revival.  Across Latin America, the fiesta de quince años is a celebration of a girl`s fifteenth birthday. The girl celebrating the birthday is called a Quinceañera . This birthday is celebrated differently from any other birthday, as it marks the transition from childhood to young womanhood .  Cooking class at a girls` school in Jerusalem , c. 1936. Girls` upbringing and education were traditionally focused on preparing them to be future wives. In many ancient societies, girls` upbringing had much to do with preparing them to be future wives. In many cultures, it was not the norm for women to be economically independent. Thus, where a girl`s future well-being depended upon marrying her to a man who was economically self-sufficient, it was crucial to prepare her to meet whatever qualities or skills were popularly expected of wives. In cultures ranging from Ancient Greece to the 19th-century United States, girls have been taught such essential domestic skills as sewing, cooking, gardening, and basic hygiene and medical care such as preparing balms and salves , and in some cases midwife skills. These skills would be taught from generation to generation, with the knowledge passed down orally from mother to daughter. A well-known reference to these important women`s skills is in the folk tale Rumpelstiltskin , which dates back to Medieval Germany and was collected in written form by the folklorists the Brothers Grimm . The miller`s daughter is valued as a potential wife because of her reputation for being able to spin straw into gold. In some parts of China, beginning in the Southern Tang kingdom in Nanjing (937-975), the custom of foot binding was associated with upper class women who were worthy of a life of leisure, and husbands who could afford to spare them the necessity of work (which would require the ability to be mobile and spend the day on their feet). Because of this belief, parents hoping to ensure a good marriage for their daughters would begin binding their feet from about the age of seven years to achieve the ideal appearance. The tinier the feet, the better the social rank of a future husband. This practice did not end until the early years of the 20th century.  China has had many customs tied to girls and their roles as future wives and mothers. According to one custom, a girl`s way of wearing her hair would indicate her marital status. An unmarried girl would wear her hair in two "pigtails", and once married, she would wear her hair in one.  In some cultures, girls` passing through puberty is viewed with concern for a girl`s chastity. In some communities, there is a traditional belief that female genital mutilation is a necessity to prevent a girl from becoming sexually promiscuous. The practice is dangerous, however, and leads to long-term health problems for women who have undergone it. The practice has been a custom in 28 countries of Africa, and persists mainly in rural areas. This coming-of-age custom, sometimes incorrectly described as "female circumcision", is being outlawed by governments, and challenged by human rights groups and other concerned community members, who are working to end the practice. The Pashtun population has a tradition of trading girls in solving disputes. Girls have been used historically, and are still used in some parts of the world, in settlements of disputes between families, through practices such as baad , swara , or vani . In such situations, a girl from a criminal`s family is given to the victim`s family as a servant or a bride . Another practice is that of selling girls in exchange of the bride price . The 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery defines "institutions and practices similar to slavery" to include:  c) Any institution or practice whereby: (i) A woman, without the right to refuse, is promised or given in marriage on payment of a consideration in money or in kind to her parents, guardian, family or any other person or group; or (ii) The husband of a woman, his family, or his clan, has the right to transfer her to another person for value received or otherwise; or (iii) A woman on the death of her husband is liable to be inherited by another person. China has an imbalanced sex ratio, a situation partly caused by the one child policy . Photo shows girls in 1982 in China. World map of birth sex ratios, 2012 2011 Census sex ratio map for the states and Union Territories of India, boys per 100 girls in 0 to 1 age group.  Scholars are unclear and in dispute as to possible causes for variations in human sex ratios at birth.   Countries which have sex ratios of 108 and above are usually presumed of engaging in sex selection. However, deviations in sex ratios at birth can occur for natural causes too. Nevertheless, the practice of bias against girls, through sex selective abortion , female infanticide , female abandonment , as well as favoring sons with regard to allocating of family resources  is well documented in parts of South Asia , East Asia , and the Caucasus . Such practices are a major concern in China, India and Pakistan. In these cultures, the low status of women creates a bias against females.  China and India have a very strong son preference. In China, the one child policy was largely responsible for an unbalanced sex ratio. Sex-selective abortion, as well as rejection of girl children is common. The Dying Rooms is a 1995 television documentary film about Chinese state orphanages, which documented how parents abandoned their newborn girls into orphanages , where the staff would leave the children in rooms to die of thirst, or starvation. In India, the practice of dowry is partly responsible for a strong son preference. Another manifestation of son preference is the violence inflicted against mothers who give birth to girls.    In India, by 2011, there were 91 girls younger than 6 for every 100 boys. Its 2011 census showed  that the ratio of girls to boys under the age of 6 years old has dropped even during the past decade, from 927 girls for every 1000 boys in 2001 to 918 girls for every 1000 boys in 2011. In China, scholars  report 794 baby girls for every 1000 baby boys in rural regions. In Azerbaijan , last 20 years of birth data suggests 862 girls were born for every 1000 boys, on average every year.  Steven Mosher, president of the Population Research Institute in Washington, D.C. has said: "Twenty-five million men in China currently can’t find brides because there is a shortage of women [...] young men emigrate overseas to find brides." The gender imbalance in these regions is also blamed for spurring growth in the commercial sex trade; the UN`s 2005 report states that up to 800,000 people being trafficked across borders each year, and as many as 80 percent are women and girls.  Rows of pink girls` toys in a Canadian store, 2011. Biological sex interacts with environment in ways not fully understood in creating gender roles . A girl with a doll, a traditionally female toy. Photo by Hermann Kapps A victress of the Heraean Games , represented near the start of a race. Various cultures throughout history have had different ideas of acceptable activities for girls. In general, girls develop female characteristics by inheriting two X chromosomes (XX), one from each parent.  About one in a thousand girls have a 47,XXX karyotype, and one in 2500 have a 45,X one. Girls typically have a female reproductive system . Some intersex children with ambiguous genitals and some transgender children, originally assigned male at birth, may also be classified or self-identify as girls.  Girls` bodies undergo gradual changes during puberty . Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child `s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization . It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads . In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth, function, and transformation of the brain , bones , muscle , blood , skin , hair , breasts , and sexual organs . Physical growth —height and weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when the child has developed an adult body. Until the maturation of their reproductive capabilities, the pre-pubertal, physical differences between boys and girls are the genitalia . Puberty is a process that usually takes place between 10 and 16 years, but these ages differ from girl to girl. The major landmark of girls` puberty is menarche , the onset of menstruation , which occurs on average between 12 and 13.     Biological sex interacts with environment in ways not fully understood.  Identical twin girls separated at birth and reunited decades later have shown both startling similarities and differences.  In 2005 Kim Wallen of Emory University noted, "I think the ` nature versus nurture ` question is not meaningful, because it treats them as independent factors, whereas in fact everything is nature and nurture." Wallen said gender differences emerge very early and come about through an underlying preference males and females have for their chosen activities. Femininity is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women. Femininity is socially constructed, but made up of both socially-defined and biologically-created factors.    This makes it distinct from the definition of the biological female sex ,   as both males and females can exhibit feminine traits. Traits traditionally cited as feminine include gentleness , empathy , and sensitivity ,    though traits associated with femininity vary depending on location and context, and are influenced by a variety of social and cultural factors.  Gender neutrality describes the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions should avoid distinguishing roles according to people`s sex or gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from rigid gender roles. Unisex refers to things that are considered appropriate for any sex. Campaigns for unisex toys include Let Toys Be Toys . Above: School girls in Afghanistan ; Middle: Girls in United States entering the class on their first day in university; Below: School girls in Haiti with OLPC laptop Girls` equal access to education has been achieved in some countries, but there are significant disparities in the majority. There are gaps in access between different regions and countries and even within countries. Girls account for 60 per cent of children out of school in Arab countries and 66 per cent of non-attendees in South and West Asia; however, more girls than boys attend schools in many countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, North America and Western Europe.  Research has measured the economic cost of this inequality to developing countries: Plan International ’s analysis shows that a total of 65 low, middle income and transition countries fail to offer girls the same secondary school opportunities as boys, and in total, these countries are missing out on annual economic growth of an estimated $92 billion.  Although the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has asserted "primary education shall be compulsory and available free to all" girls are slightly less likely to be enrolled as students in primary and secondary schools (70%:74% and 59%:65%). Worldwide efforts have been made to end this disparity (such as through the Millennium Development Goals ) and the gap has closed since 1990.  According to Kim Wallen, expectations will nonetheless play a role in how girls perform academically. For example, if females skilled in math are told a test is "gender neutral" they achieve high scores, but if they are told males outperformed females in the past, the females will do much worse. "What’s strange is," Wallen observed, "according to the research, all one apparently has to do is tell a woman who has a lifetime of socialization of being poor in math that a math test is gender neutral, and all effects of that socialization go away."  Author Judith Harris has said that aside from their genetic contribution, the nurturing provided by parents likely has less long-term influence over their offspring than other environmental aspects such as the children`s peer group .  In England , studies by the National Literacy Trust have shown girls score consistently higher than boys in all scholastic areas from the ages of 7 through 16, with the most striking differences noted in reading and writing skills.  In the United States , historically, girls lagged on standardized tests. In 1996 the average score of 503 for US girls from all races on the SAT verbal test was 4 points lower than boys. In math, the average for girls was 492, which was 35 points lower than boys. "When girls take the exact same courses," commented Wayne Camara, a research scientist with the College Board, "that 35-point gap dissipates quite a bit." At the time Leslie R. Wolfe, president of the Center for Women Policy Studies said girls scored differently on the math tests because they tend to work the problems out while boys use "test-taking tricks" such as immediately checking the answers already given in multiple-choice questions. Wolfe said girls are steady and thorough while "boys play this test like a pin-ball machine." Wolfe also said although girls had lower SAT scores they consistently get higher grades than boys across all courses in their first year in college.  By 2006 girls were outscoring boys on the verbal portion of the United States` nationwide SAT exam by 11 points.  A 2005 University of Chicago study showed that a majority presence of girls in the classroom tends to enhance the academic performance of boys.   In many parts of the world, girls face significant obstacles to accessing proper education. These obstacles include: early and forced marriages ; early pregnancy ; prejudice based on gender stereotypes at home, at school and in the community; violence on the way to school, or in and around schools; long distances to schools; vulnerability to the HIV epidemic; school fees, which often lead to parents sending only their sons to school; lack of gender sensitive approaches and materials in classrooms.   
The spelling of "woman" in English has progressed over the past millennium from wīfmann  to wīmmann to wumman, and finally, the modern spelling woman.  In Old English , wīfmann meant "female human", whereas wēr meant "male human". Mann or monn had a gender-neutral meaning of "human", corresponding to Modern English "person" or "someone"; however, subsequent to the Norman Conquest , man began to be used more in reference to "male human", and by the late 13th century had begun to eclipse usage of the older term wēr.  The medial labial consonants f and m in wīfmann coalesced into the modern form "woman", while the initial element wīf, which meant "female", underwent semantic narrowing to the sense of a married woman ("wife"). The symbol for the planet and goddess Venus or Aphrodite in Greek is the sign also used in biology for the female sex.  It is a stylized representation of the goddess Venus`s hand- mirror or an abstract symbol for the goddess: a circle with a small equilateral cross underneath. The Venus symbol also represented femininity , and in ancient alchemy stood for copper . Alchemists constructed the symbol from a circle (representing spirit ) above an equilateral cross (representing matter ). Womanhood is the period in a human female`s life after she has passed through childhood and adolescence, generally around age 18. The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English;  it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child.  The term girl is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman; however, during the early 1970s feminists challenged such use because the use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman may cause offence. In particular, previously common terms such as office girl are no longer widely used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity , the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden. Referring to an unmarried female human as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which would be an insult to her family.[ citation needed ] There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche ; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles ; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as shorthand for "human femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women`s conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliberate archaism ; "muliebrity" is a neologism (derived from the Latin) meant to provide a female counterpart of " virility ", but used very loosely, sometimes to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity" and sometimes even as a collective term for women.[ citation needed ] Menarche, the onset of menstruation , occurs on average at age 12-13. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a girl`s coming of age , such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity ,  bat mitzvah in Judaism , or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21), like the Quinceañera of Latin America. The earliest women whose names are known through archaeology include: Neithhotep (c. 3200 BCE), the wife of Narmer and the first queen of ancient Egypt.   Merneith (c. 3000 BCE), consort and regent of ancient Egypt during the first dynasty . She may have been ruler of Egypt in her own right.   Puabi (c. 2600 BCE), or Shubad – queen of Ur whose tomb was discovered with many expensive artifacts. Other known pre-Sargonic queens of Ur (royal wives) include Ashusikildigir, Ninbanda, and Gansamannu.  Tashlultum (c. 2400 BCE), Akkadian queen, wife of Sargon of Akkad and mother of Enheduanna.   Baranamtarra (c. 2384 BCE), prominent and influential queen of Lugalanda of Lagash . Other known pre-Sargonic queens of the first Lagash dynasty include Menbara-abzu, Ashume`eren, Ninkhilisug, Dimtur, and Shagshag, and the names of several princesses are also known. Enheduanna (c. 2285 BCE),   the high priestess of the temple of the Moon God in the Sumerian city-state of Ur and possibly the first known poet and first named author of either gender.  Shibtu (c. 1775 BC), king Zimrilim `s consort and queen of the Syrian city-state of Mari . During her husband`s absence, she ruled as regent of Mari and enjoyed extensive administrative powers as queen.  Photograph of an adult female human, with an adult male for comparison. Note that both models have partially shaved body hair. In terms of biology , the female sex organs are involved in the reproductive system, whereas the secondary sex characteristics are involved in nurturing children or, in some cultures, attracting a mate. The ovaries , in addition to their regulatory function producing hormones, produce female gametes called eggs which, when fertilized by male gametes ( sperm ), form new genetic individuals. The uterus is an organ with tissue to protect and nurture the developing fetus and muscle to expel it when giving birth. The vagina is used in copulation and birthing, although the term vagina is often colloquially and incorrectly used in the English language for the vulva or external female genitalia, which consists of (in addition to the vagina) the labia , the clitoris , and the female urethra . The breast evolved from the sweat gland to produce milk, a nutritious secretion that is the most distinctive characteristic of mammals, along with live birth. In mature women, the breast is generally more prominent than in most other mammals; this prominence, not necessary for milk production, is probably at least partially the result of sexual selection . (For other ways in which men commonly differ physically from women, see man .)[ citation needed ] During early fetal development, embryos of both sexes appear gender-neutral. As in cases without two sexes, such as species that reproduce asexually , the gender-neutral appearance is closer to female than to male. A fetus usually develops into a male if it is exposed to a significant amount of testosterone (typically because the fetus has a Y chromosome from the father). Otherwise, the fetus usually develops into a female, typically when the fetus has an X chromosome from the father, but also when the father contributed neither an X nor Y chromosome. Later at puberty, estrogen feminizes a young woman, giving her adult sexual characteristics.[ citation needed ] An imbalance of maternal hormonal levels and some chemicals (or drugs) may alter the secondary sexual characteristics of fetuses. Most women have the karyotype 46,XX, but around one in a thousand will be 47,XXX , and one in 2500 will be 45,X . This contrasts with the typical male karotype of 46,XY; thus, the X and Y chromosomes are known as female and male, respectively. Because humans inherit mitochondrial DNA only from the mother`s ovum, genetic studies of the female line tend to focus on mitochondrial DNA .[ citation needed ] Whether or not a child is considered female does not always determine whether or not the child later will identify themselves that way (see gender identity ). For instance, intersex individuals, who have mixed physical and/or genetic features, may use other criteria in making a clear determination. At birth, babies may be assigned a gender based on their genitalia. In some cases, even if a child had XX chromosomes, if they were born with a penis, they were raised as a male.  There are also transgender and transsexual women, who were assigned as male at birth, but identify as women; there are varying social, legal, and individual definitions with regard to these issues (see trans woman ).[ citation needed ] Although fewer females than males are born (the ratio is around 1:1.05), because of a longer life expectancy there are only 81 men aged 60 or over for every 100 women of the same age. Women typically have a longer life expectancy than men.  This is due to a combination of factors: genetics (redundant and varied genes present on sex chromosomes in women); sociology (such as the fact that women are not expected in most modern nations to perform military service ); health -impacting choices (such as suicide or the use of cigarettes , and alcohol ); the presence of the female hormone estrogen , which has a cardioprotective effect in premenopausal women; and the effect of high levels of androgens in men. Out of the total human population in 2015, there were 101.8 men for every 100 women.  Girls` bodies undergo gradual changes during puberty, analogous to but distinct from those experienced by boys. Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child`s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilisation . It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads -either the ovaries or the testes . In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth, function, and transformation of the brain, bones , muscle , blood , skin , hair , breasts, and sexual organs. Physical growth —height and weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when the child has developed an adult body. Until the maturation of their reproductive capabilities, the pre-pubertal, physical differences between boys and girls are the genitalia , the penis and the vagina. Puberty is a process that usually takes place between the ages 10–16, but these ages differ from girl to girl. The major landmark of girls` puberty is menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs on average between ages 12–13.     Women`s health refers to health issues specific to human female anatomy. There are some diseases that primarily affect women, such as lupus . Also, there are some gender-related illnesses that are found more frequently or exclusively in women, e.g., breast cancer , cervical cancer , or ovarian cancer . Women and men may have different symptoms of an illness and may also respond to medical treatment differently. This area of medical research is studied by gender-based medicine .  The issue of women`s health has been taken up by many feminists , especially where reproductive health is concerned. Women`s health is positioned within a wider body of knowledge cited by, amongst others, the World Health Organisation , which places importance on gender as a social determinant of health.  Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."  About 99% of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. More than half of them occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third in South Asia . The main causes of maternal mortality are severe bleeding (mostly bleeding after childbirth), infections (usually after childbirth), pre-eclampsia and eclampsia , unsafe abortion, and pregnancy complications from malaria and HIV/AIDS .  Most European countries, Australia, as well as Japan and Singapore are very safe in regard to childbirth, while Sub-Saharan countries are the most dangerous.  A poster from a 1921 eugenics conference displays the U.S. states that had implemented sterilization legislation Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health . The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics has stated that:  (...) the human rights of women include their right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. Equal relationships between women and men in matters of sexual relations and reproduction, including full respect for the integrity of the person, require mutual respect, consent and shared responsibility for sexual behavior and its consequences. Forced sterilization was practiced during the first half of the 20th century by many Western countries. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are reported to be currently practiced in countries such as Uzbekistan and China.       A woman weaving. Textile work is traditionally and historically a female occupation in many cultures. In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role. In hunter-gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, small animal foods and fish, while men hunted meat from large animals.[ citation needed ] In more recent history, gender roles have changed greatly. Originally, starting at a young age, aspirations occupationally are typically veered towards specific directions according to gender.  Traditionally, middle class women were involved in domestic tasks emphasizing child care. For poorer women, especially working class women, although this often remained an ideal,[ specify ] economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home. Many of the occupations that were available to them were lower in pay than those available to men.[ citation needed ] As changes in the labor market for women came about, availability of employment changed from only "dirty", long hour factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office jobs where more education was demanded, women`s participation in the U.S. labor force rose from 6% in 1900 to 23% in 1923. These shifts in the labor force led to changes in the attitudes of women at work, allowing for the revolution which resulted in women becoming career and education oriented.[ citation needed ] In the 1970s, many female academics, including scientists, avoided having children. However, throughout the 1980s, institutions tried to equalize conditions for men and women in the workplace. Even so, the inequalities at home stumped women`s opportunities to succeed as far as men. Professional women are still generally considered responsible for domestic labor and child care. As people would say, they have a "double burden" which does not allow them the time and energy to succeed in their careers. Furthermore, though there has been an increase in the endorsement of egalitarian gender roles in the home by both women and men, a recent research study showed that women focused on issues of morality, fairness, and well-being, while men focused on social conventions.  Until the early 20th century, U.S. women`s colleges required their women faculty members to remain single, on the grounds that a woman could not carry on two full-time professions at once. According to Schiebinger, "Being a scientist and a wife and a mother is a burden in society that expects women more often than men to put family ahead of career." (pg. 93).  Movements advocate equality of opportunity for both sexes and equal rights irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement,[ specify ] in recent decades women in many societies now have access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker . Although a greater number of women are seeking higher education, their salaries are often less than those of men. CBS News claimed in 2005 that in the United States women who are ages 30 to 44 and hold a university degree make 62 percent of what similarly qualified men do, a lower rate than in all but three of the 19 countries for which numbers are available. Some Western nations with greater inequity in pay are Germany, New Zealand and Switzerland.  A young ethnic Chinese woman from one of the Imperial Japanese Army `s "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer. The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women defines "violence against women" as:  any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. and identifies three forms of such violence: that which occurs in the family, that which occurs within the general community, and that which is perpetrated or condoned by the State. It also states that "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women".  Violence against women remains a widespread problem, fueled, especially outside the West, by patriarchal social values, lack of adequate laws, and lack of enforcement of existing laws. Social norms that exist in many parts of the world hinder progress towards protecting women from violence. For example, according to surveys by UNICEF , the percentage of women aged 15–49 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances is as high as 90% in Afghanistan and Jordan , 87% in Mali , 86% in Guinea and Timor-Leste , 81% in Laos , and 80% in the Central African Republic .  A 2010 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found that stoning as a punishment for adultery was supported by 82% of respondents in Egypt and Pakistan , 70% in Jordan , 56% Nigeria , and 42% in Indonesia .  Specific forms of violence that affect women include female genital mutilation , sex trafficking , forced prostitution , forced marriage , rape , sexual harassment , honor killings , acid throwing , and dowry related violence . Governments can be complicit in violence against women, for instance through practices such as stoning (as punishment for adultery). There have also been many forms of violence against women which have been prevalent historically, notably the burning of witches , the sacrifice of widows (such as sati ) and foot binding . The prosecution of women accused of witchcraft has a long tradition, for example witch trials in the early modern period (between the 15th and 18th centuries) were common in Europe and in the European colonies in North America. Today, there remain regions of the world (such as parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, rural North India, and Papua New Guinea) where belief in witchcraft is held by many people, and women accused of being witches are subjected to serious violence.    In addition, there are also countries which have criminal legislation against the practice of witchcraft. In Saudi Arabia , witchcraft remains a crime punishable by death , and in 2011 the country beheaded a woman for `witchcraft and sorcery`.   It is also the case that certain forms of violence against women have been recognized as criminal offenses only during recent decades, and are not universally prohibited, in that many countries continue to allow them. This is especially the case with marital rape .   In the Western World, there has been a trend towards ensuring gender equality within marriage and prosecuting domestic violence , but in many parts of the world women still lose significant legal rights when entering a marriage.  Sexual violence against women greatly increases during times of war and armed conflict , during military occupation , or ethnic conflicts ; most often in the form of war rape and sexual slavery . Contemporary examples of sexual violence during war include rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War , rape in the Bosnian War , rape during the Rwandan Genocide , and rape during Second Congo War . In Colombia, the armed conflict has also resulted in increased sexual violence against women.  Laws and policies on violence against women vary by jurisdiction. In the European Union , sexual harassment and human trafficking are subject to directives .   Women`s clothing varies highly in different cultures. From left to right: Afghan women wearing burqas , Japanese women wearing kimonos , and German women in casual tank tops and miniskirts . Women in different parts of the world dress in different ways, with their choices of clothing being influenced by local culture, religious tenets traditions, social norms, and fashion trends, amongst other factors. Different societies have different ideas about modesty . However, in many jurisdictions, women`s choices in regard to dress are not always free, with laws limiting what they may or may not wear. This is especially the case in regard to Islamic dress . While certain jurisdictions legally mandate such clothing (the wearing of the headscarf), other countries forbid or restrict the wearing of certain hijab attire (such as burqa /covering the face) in public places (one such country is France - see French ban on face covering ). These laws are highly controversial.  A world map showing countries by total fertility rate (TFR), according to the CIA World Factbook `s 2015 data.
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Copyright 2018 Nexstar Broadcasting, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. When it comes to vasectomies, March is the `snipping season` More men across the country are undergoing a very intimate and very permanent procedure this month, than any other time of the year.
Angela Sullivan, who had sex with a 12-year-old boy almost 200 times, was jailed for nine years A single mother aged 36 who had sex almost 200 times with a 12-year-old boy was today jailed for nine years. Angela Sullivan even gave the boy - who is the same age as her own son - a pair of trainers as a reward after he slept with her for the 100th time. When police arrested her in October, they found her diary marked with childish entries, and 191 stars against dates when they had sex. Unemployed Sullivan, of Middlesbrough, admitted 10 specimen charges - relating to one sex session for each month of their fling last year - of causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity. Jailing Sullivan for nine years, Judge John Walford described the case as `shocking`. `You took advantage of this boy`s age,` the judge said. `While I accept from the papers that you did not ply him with drink, the fact of the matter is that to allow a 12-year-old boy to drink, such that he did become intoxicated, is in my judgment shameful.` The judge condemned Sullivan for the psychological effect her conduct would have on the victim and her own son. `But having read the pre-sentence report and the psychiatric report upon you I am prepared to accept this was an aberration, albeit one that was long lasting, rather than anything more serious.` Earlier, prosecutor Richard Bennett told Teesside Crown Court that the abuse started on the night of a party she threw at her home in January last year. `On the 3rd to the 4th January the defendant threw a belated New Year`s party,` he said. `Alcohol, including spirits, was available and it seems the young children at the party were freely able to consume it. `During the course of the party the defendant said to the boy, `Are you daring? Are you a devil? Are you game?` Sullivan was determined to have sex with the youngster 200 times, when she planned to reward him with an Xbox video games console The boy, who cannot be named for legal reasons, later told police he had consumed 10 bottles of the vodka-based drink WKD and was really drunk. `The defendant took the intoxicated boy up to bed,` Mr Bennett said. Sullivan undressed him and had sexual intercourse with him while he was incapacitated. The next day the boy - described in court as a `young-looking 12-year-old` - had a heavy hangover and Sullivan told him: `I had sex with you and if anyone finds out it`s classed as rape and everything`. `Each time the defendant had sexual intercourse with the boy she would place a star in her diary against the relevant date,` Mr Bennett said. In the diary entry for May 17, which recorded the 76th time they had sex, Sullivan wrote `come on`. `It also appears from her diary that she encouraged him to shave off his pubic hair as part of her celebration,` Mr Bennett said. `In her diary on that date, together with three stars, is the comment `(name) shaved pubes`.` She would send her own son to stay with his grandparents so she and the victim had the house to themselves. `The defendant`s 12-year-old son had seen the defendant having sex with the boy,` the prosecutor said. `He had seen this in the house when the defendant wasn`t aware he was there. He had also seen this on video footage recorded by the defendant on her mobile phone.` Rumours began to circulate around the boy`s school that he was in a relationship with Sullivan and that she was pregnant. Sullivan was `quite indiscreet about the relationship`, sending friends texts or MSN computer messages about what she was doing. When the allegations were reported to the police, Sullivan denied any sexual activity had taken place. Andrew Turton, defending, said: `What Angela Sullivan did was wrong. Sullivan, who had no previous convictions, was also placed on the Sex Offenders` Register for life. Speaking after the case, Acting Detective Inspector John Wrintmore, of Cleveland Police, said: `We are pleased with the outcome of this difficult investigation and hope those affected by Angela Sullivan`s actions can take a big step forward in rebuilding their lives. `Angela Sullivan has clearly preyed on, and taken complete advantage of a vulnerable young boy. `Sexual offences of any type, particularly where children are the victims, are treated extremely seriously by the police and courts and this sentence clearly demonstrates the consequences of such actions. `Finally, I wish to commend the courage and strength of character shown by the young victim in this case as it would not have been an easy task to talk quite openly about what had happened.