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Cancer without registration and sms

Cancer without registration and sms

Cancer without registration and sms

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Channel 11’s Marlisa Goldsmith sat down with Alex Leisenring and his family and they showed us a bag stuffed with letters, pictures and all sorts of reminders of the support he has from his community. Alex`s love of videography is what keeps him going. "I like videotaping anything. Anything that involves videography, I like doing,” he said. Alex, who is 18, was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis as an infant, and a malignant tumor in his brain was discovered last month. His journey hasn`t been easy.  Neurofibromatosis is a condition that causes tumors to form in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. While some days have been difficult, the outpouring of support generated by his Monroeville community has made this process bearable.  His living room is full of encouraging reminders. And on Tuesday night at Gateway High`s basketball game, there was a halftime tribute dedicated to arguably the biggest Gators fan out there. Alex was given the game ball from the Western Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic League championship game, signed by all of Gateway`s football players.  "It`s really nice to know that everyone`s in our corner, helps us out whenever we need. They`re here for us,” said Amy Leisenring, Alex’s mother.  Alex is being treated at Children`s Hospital and has a follow-up meeting with doctors there later this week. If you would like to send cards or posters to Alex, you can send them to: You can also contact the Monroeville Community Cares Facebook page for more information.

Welcome to Granville House Medical Centre, providing primary care for Adlington, Anderton and Heath Charnock. We hope you take your time to browse our website where you will find lots of useful information about the surgery and the services we offer. Can we ask all patients to check their contacts details are up to date, if you have recently changed any contact details, such as mobile number, please contact the surgery to let us know, thank you. Please Click Here to take part in the Patient Participation Survey for 2017-2018.

Many people who “die from cancer” really die from the chemotherapy long before they would have actually died from the cancer itself. Chemotherapy has always been developed from toxic poisonous chemicals, right? So, there has always been a fine line between administering a “therapeutic dose” and killing the cancer patient. Many doctors step over that line. But don’t take it from me! Here’s what Dr. Allen Levin says about this topic: “Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon, or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade, yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumors.” In his book, The Topic of Cancer: When the Killing Has to Stop, Dick Richards cites a number of autopsy studies which have shown that cancer patients actually died from conventional treatments before the tumor had a chance to kill them. Just think about it… To put it plainly, the treatment kills them before the cancer kills them. As a matter of fact, the chemotherapy drug 5FU is sometimes referred to by doctors as “5 feet under” because of its deadly side effects. For most adult cancers, the typical best case scenario is that the “Big 3” buys a little time. In a worst case scenario, you will die from the treatment rather than the disease. In his book, When Healing Becomes a Crime, Kenny Ausubel notes that in a trial on a chemotherapy drug tested for leukemia, a whopping 42% of the patients died directly from the toxicity of the chemotherapy drug! Here are the facts. In 1942, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center quietly began to treat breast cancer with these mustard gas derivatives. No one was cured. Chemotherapy trials were also conducted at Yale around 1943 where 160 patients were treated. Again, no one was cured. According to Dr. John Diamond, M.D., “A study of over 10,000 patients shows clearly that chemo’s supposedly strong track record with Hodgkin’s disease (lymphoma) is actually a lie. Patients who underwent chemo were 14 times more likely to develop leukemia and 6 times more likely to develop cancers of the bones, joints, and soft tissues than those patients who did not undergo chemotherapy.” Dr. Glenn Warner, who died in 2000, was one of the most highly qualified cancer specialists in the United States. He used alternative treatments on his cancer patients with great success. On the treatment of cancer in this country he said: “We have a multi-billion dollar industry that is killing people, right and left, just for financial gain. Their idea of research is to see whether two doses of this poison is better than three doses of that poison.” Dr. Alan C. Nixon, past president of the American Chemical Society writes, “As a chemist trained to interpret data, it is incomprehensible to me that physicians can ignore the clear evidence that chemotherapy does much, much more harm than good.” And according to Dr. Charles Mathe, French cancer specialist, “if I contracted cancer, I would never go to a standard cancer treatment centre. Only cancer victims who live far from such centres have a chance.” Yet, day after day, year after year, the Cancer Industry continues to put these toxic chemicals into the bodies of cancer patients. And the patients let them do it, even volunteering for new “guinea pig” studies, simply because someone with a degree from a school of disease (also known as medical school) told them it was their “only option.” It costs lots of money for them to poison the body of cancer patients, and the patients gladly pay it. Sadly, some people will spend six figures a year poisoning their bodies because their “doctor told them to do it.” The truth is that there are many effective natural cancer treatments that don’t require a barbaric procedure like chemotherapy.

Калькулятор ТО, это очень просто и удобно для понимания цены на обслуживание вашего Volvo, стоимость то xc 60 xc 90 и других моделей ВольвоРегулярное проведение ТО является залогом долгой беззаботной работы Вашего автомобиля. Техническое обслуживание современных автомобилей Вольво необходимо проводить каждые 20 000 километров или раз в год, в зависимости от того, что наступит раньше. Для быстрого расчета стоимости предстоящего технического обслуживания предлагаем воспользоваться нашим приложением «Калькулятор ТО». Мы специально разработали данную программу для экономии драгоценного времени наших клиентов.Весь перечень работ полностью соответствует официальному техническому регламенту обслуживания автомобилей Вольво в России. Мы подберем Вам оптимальное решение по техническому обслуживанию, cохранив надежность Вашего Вольво, время и деньги. Вычислить стоимость то вольво хс60 можно в калькуляторе, достаточно точно. просто укажите тип запасных частей и пробег вашего Вольво хс60.Вам необходимо задать всего лишь 3 параметра: модель, двигатель и пробег, и Вы сможете оперативно узнать стоимость работ по вашему автомобилю Volvo при проведении ТО: Вы можете сразу узнать стоимость ТО Volvo: ознакомиться с регламентом работ ТО для Вашего автомобиля рассчитать стоимость работ планового ТО для вашего Вольво отправить заявку на расчет точной полной стоимости записаться на ТО, сохранив результаты расчетов Почему мы не рассчитываем полную стоимость ТО Volvo?Полная стоимость Вашего технического обслуживания зависит от множества факторов: типа применяемых материалов (оригинальные или не оригинальные) спец предложений и действующих акций индивидуальных предложений по обслуживанию Вашего ВольвоКалькулятор ТО * Рассчитайте точную стоимость ТО на ваш VOLVO Миф о не оригинальных запасных частях и выгоде их использования На рынке автомобильных запасных частей существует огромное количество производителей. Среди них есть хорошие и не очень. При покупке запасных частей, например, при проведении ТО Volvo, владельцы автомобилей задумываются об экономии средств и выбирают так называемые не оригинальные запасные части.Не оригинальные запасные части – это запасные части, которые производятся независимыми компаниями. Такие компании сузили свою деятельность до выпуска определенной группы запчастей. При этом выпуск запчастей может производиться под маркой компании-производителя, либо под другими марками.«Неоригинал», как правило, стоит дешевле оригинальных запасных частей. Не стоит забывать, что качество таких запасных частей в большинстве случаев отличается от заводских. Давайте рассмотрим применение «неоригинала» на двух основных категориях запчастей.Фильтра для технического обслуживания Вольво В 2008 году завод-изготовитель Volvo увеличил межсервисный интервал благодаря использованию высококачественных материалов. Неоригинальные фильтра могут не обеспечивать на всем межсервисном интервале технического обслуживания Вольво качественную очистку от загрязнений. Попадание инородных частиц в системы снижает срок службы и надежность Вашего Вольво. А плохое качество не оригинального салонного фильтра вредит Вашему здоровью.Важным параметром фильтров также является их пропускная способность. Если фильтр не соответствует требованиям завода-изготовителя, это будет сказываться на работу систем. Машина будет плохо заводится и не развивать мощность в случае проблем с топливным и воздушным фильтром. Неправильная работа масляного фильтра приведет к масляному голоданию двигателя и выходу его из строя.Тормозные колодки. К тормозным колодкам, как к основным элементам системы безопасности Вольво, предъявляются высокие требования. Они должны обеспечивать надежное сцепление с тормозным диском, иметь стабильные характеристики при различных температурах. Требования по звуковым характеристикам также имеют важное значение для владельцев.Дешевые и низкокачественные тормозные колодки часто издают посторонние звуки при торможении. Тормозные свойства при холодных тормозных механизмах как правило у них соответствуют требованиям завода-изготовителя. Но стоит немного потормозить, как эффективность торможения падает в разы. Также не стоит забывать и о ресурсе колодок и дисков. Завод-изготовитель тщательно подбирает состав фрикционных накладок, исходя из параметров максимальной скорости, веса автомобиля, привода, межсервисного интервала ТО Volvo и многих других. Как показывает практика, не оригинальные колодки делают или мягче, что приводит их к быстрому износу, или жестче, что приводит к преждевременному выходу из строя тормозных дисков.Оригинальные тормозные колодки обладают оптимальными для данного автомобиля свойствами.ИТОГО При выборе запасных частей мы рекомендуем руководствоваться следующими принципами: в ситуации критического отсутствия финансовых возможностей, можно устанавливать дешевый не оригинал. Но нужно понимать, что вскоре снова потребуется замена этих деталей.В случае, если Вы планируете долго эксплуатировать автомобиль и для Вас важна безопасность, надежность и комфорт, мы рекомендуем остановить свой выбор на оригинальных запасных частях. Не оригинальные запчасти уровня оригинальных стоят примерно таких же денег, а иногда даже дороже. Миф о том, что делают везде одинаковая, зачем платить больше?При выборе сервиса для обслуживания своего Вольво клиенты часто уководствуются параметром цены. Чем дешевле – тем лучше. Не всегда погоня за самой низкой ценой приводит к желаемому результату.Автомобили Вольво имеют довольно сложную конструкцию. При ремонте необходимо четко следовать рекомендациям завода-изготовителя. Последовательность разборно- сборочных работ имеют особую важность. Такие технические данные, как моменты затяжки, углы доворота болтов, детали одноразового монтажа – информация, без которой невозможно выполнить ремонт качественно.Опыт работы с автомобилями шведской марки имеет большое значение. Опытный специалист сможет быстро определить по первым симптомам неисправность. Это позволит Вам сэкономить время. А в некоторых случаях ипоможет избежать глобальных трат от сильных поломок.Специализированный сервис Вольво предполагает профессиональный подходит при ремонте и обслуживании автомобилей шведской марки. Для этого мы используем качественное оборудование, которое подходит для ремонтных работ данной категории автомобилей. Необходимый перечень оригинальных специнструментов, наличие склада оригинальных запасных частей позволяет нам оперативно выполнять ремонт и техническое обслуживание Вашего Вольво быстро, качественно и с первого раза.Компания Castrol является одним из ключевых партнером компании Volvo Cars. Совместно с Castrol разрабатываются смазывающие материалы для большинства современных двигателей и агрегатов легковых автомобилей Volvo.Стоит отметить, что современные двигатели Volvo предъявляют самые высокие требования к качеству используемого масла.Наиболее распространенная вязкость масла для Volvo 0w30. И многие владельцы при покупке масла руководствуются исключительно этим параметром. Это не совсем правильно, поскольку помимо вязкости большую роль играет также и качество масла. Эксплуатация двигателя с маслом, несоответствующим требованиям завода-изготовителя, может привести к преждевременному выходу его из строя. Согласно классификации Ассоциации Европейских Производителей Автомобилей ACEA, требования следующие: A1/B1, A5/B5.По технической документации данное масло имеет следующее предназначение:стойкие к механической деструкции масла, предназначенные для применения с увеличенными интервалами замены масла в высокофорсированных бензиновых и дизельных двигателях легких транспортных средств, в которых возможно использование маловязких масел, снижающих трение, с динамической вязкостью при высокой температуре и высокой скорости сдвига (HTHS) от 2,9 до 3,5 мПа•с. Эти масла могут быть не пригодны для смазывания некоторых двигателей. Необходимо руководствоваться инструкцией по эксплуатации и справочниками.Согласно классификации моторных масел API (API Engine Service Classification System), требования к маслу Volvo следующие: SL/CF.Такой стандарт качества предполагает, что масло обладает стабильными энергосберегающими свойствами пониженной летучестью удлиненными интервалами замены — может применяться в дизельных двигателях с содержанием серы в топливе 0,5% и выше В современных двигателях Вольво поколения Drive—e используется масло вязкостью 0W20 и стандартом качества VCC RBS0-2AE. Существует 2 бренда данного масла : оригинальное Вольво и масло компании Castrol.При выборе масла для Вашего Вольво не стоит забывать о том, что линейка моторных масел Castrol разработано совместно с компанией Вольво масло для двигателей Вольво имеют очень высокий стандарт качества специализированное масло для двигателей Вольво Сastrol Edge Professional трудно найти в обычном магазине, т.к. не предназначено для розничной продажи. Оно продается исключительно у официальных дилеров, специализированных сервисных центрах Вольво и магазинах. правильно подбирайте масло для двигателей Вашего Вольво, руководствуясь вышеуказанными техническими характеристиками. Компания Castrol является одним из ключевых партнером компании Volvo Cars. Совместно с Castrol разрабатываются смазывающие материалы для большинства современных двигателей и агрегатов легковых автомобилей Volvo.Стоит отметить, что современные двигатели Volvo предъявляют самые высокие требования к качеству используемого масла.Наиболее распространенная вязкость масла для Volvo 0w30. И многие владельцы при покупке масла руководствуются исключительно этим параметром. Это не совсем правильно, поскольку помимо вязкости большую роль играет также и качество масла. Эксплуатация двигателя с маслом, несоответствующим требованиям завода-изготовителя, может привести к преждевременному выходу его из строя.Согласно классификации Ассоциации Европейских Производителей Автомобилей ACEA, требования следующие: A1/B1, A5/B5.По технической документации данное масло имеет следующее предназначение:стойкие к механической деструкции масла, предназначенные для применения с увеличенными интервалами замены масла в высокофорсированных бензиновых и дизельных двигателях легких транспортных средств, в которых возможно использование маловязких масел, снижающих трение, с динамической вязкостью при высокой температуре и высокой скорости сдвига (HTHS) от 2,9 до 3,5 мПа•с. Эти масла могут быть не пригодны для смазывания некоторых двигателей. Необходимо руководствоваться инструкцией по эксплуатации и справочниками.Согласно классификации моторных масел API (API Engine Service Classification System), требования к маслу volvo следующие: SL/CF.Такой стандарт качества предполагает, что масло обладает стабильными энергосберегающими свойствами пониженной летучестью удлиненными интервалами замены — может применяться в дизельных двигателях с содержанием серы в топливе 0,5% и выше В современных двигателях Вольво поколения Drive—e используется масло вязкостью 0W20 и стандартом качества VCC RBS0-2AE. Существует бренда данного масла: оригинальное Вольво и масло компании Castrol.При выборе масла для Вашего Вольво не стоит забывать о том, что линейка моторных масел Castrol разработано совместно с компанией Вольво масло для двигателей Вольво имеют очень высокий стандарт качества специализированное масло для двигателей Вольво Сastrol Edge Professional трудно найти в обычном магазине, т.к. не предназначено для розничной продажи. Оно продается исключительно у официальных дилеров, специализированных сервисных центрах Вольво и магазинах. правильно подбирайте масло для двигателей Вашего Вольво, руководствуясь вышеуказанными техническими характеристиками.Современные автомобили Вольво имеют межсервисный интервал 20 000 километров или один раз в год. Эта периодичность обслуживания достаточна для того, чтобы поддерживать свой Вольво в форме.При проведении технического обслуживания специалисты диагностируют текущие неисправности, выявляют будущие неисправность на начальной стадии. Это позволяет сэкономить на дорогостоящем ремонте узлов и агрегатов.Стоит также отметить, что условия эксплуатации в России отличаются от Европейских. В нашей стране довольно большой перепад температур, агрессивная внешняя среда, а также часто образовываются затруднения дорожного движения.Учитывая все это, мы рекомендуем производить замену масла в ДВС чаще, делать это раз в десять тысяч километров. И также считаем актуальным проводить комплексную проверку автомобиля перед летним и зимним сезоном. Поскольку эксплуатация автомобиля в эти времена года имеет некоторые особенности, нужно чтобы Ваш Вольво был к ним готов.

I truly hope all goes well for you, Jamie. Melanin is what protects you from harmful uv radiation. Dark skin people have more naturally. This goes for ALL people, not just the fair skinned. Freckles are damage. it`s got a lot to do with where you are and how your body reacts to the sun if you are brought up in a sunny place like a lot of Australia skin cancer doesn`t discriminate! Thank you all for sharing and comments. Red head here. I never sunbath and use sunscreen everyday including in the winter. I still have been tested 5 times for possible stun cancer. Seriously nothing to joke about. Black people get skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Anyone with skin, including dogs, can get melanoma. Absolutely true. I think the point John L was making is that people like me (I`m a soulless ginger *grin*) and anyone who is fair skinned we are more susceptible to that type of damage). Now the freckles thing that was stated that freckles are damaged skin is a myth. I wanted to look it up to be certain. The reason people think that they are damaged skin is because of when they typically show up, around 7-8 years of age. Freckles are just your skin type. My 3 year old has them. Here`s the source from me finding out, as well, that freckles are not damaged skin. http://www.menshealth.com.sg/health/do-freckles-signal-higher-risk-sun-damage-or-skin-cancer Yes, my dad is that type - light skin, freckles, and was diagnosed with melanoma 6 years ago. A mole on his back start growing and bleeding - after surgery and immunotherapy for 6 months, he is fine now. But you never know whether that f***ing cancer won`t come back. So stay safe, and go to dermatologist immediately if notice some change in moles or freckles. My dad was a freckled redhead who loved golf. His squamous cell carcinoma originated inside his nostril. First he lost his nose; then about 1/2" more all around that hole. Finally, they removed the roof of his mouth and more upper lip. He isolated himself from all but immediate family for the last two years. He died at 66. Please wear sunscreen, protective clothing, and get checked annually. I have the same complexion as this woman, light skin, freckles but I never was a sun lover, stayed out of it my entire life after a very bad sunburn at 8. I still worry about cancer, hard to see when freckled. You don`t have to worry too much, as long as you keep track of the bigger ones. If any one of them changes and/or starts itching or bleeding, that may be signs that there`s something wrong. Please have it checked out then. Go to your doctor or dermatologist and get a full skin check. They`ll go over you from head to toe with lights and are able to inspect your skin far more closely than you can. Common sites for skin cancer in women are the scalp, the backs of the legs, the back of the neck, the back of your arms, the ears - especially behind your ears, and forehead and cheekbones (which is where my mother`s cancer was found. Exactly! Although funny enough, not all redheads have pale skin or freckles. My father has very pale skin and freckles and he`s not a redhead, but because of his light complexion he needs to take extra care of his skin. Anyone with pale skin needs to take extra care of their skin. So damn important! Everyone needs to avoid sun, fair skin or not. Yep, sun = bad in high quantities. You do have to mind your vitamin D as well. About 15 mins a day should be enough for that though. It`s amazing if you go on vacation to one of the canaries how many older (originally fair skinned) people are there lying in the sun looking like baked leather - or worse, sitting in the sun with skin that`s already burnt! I don`t understand why people are so reckless with their bodies! Freckles are not mutated skin cells. Instead of getting an even tan, some people get small spots of Melanin instead. "Melanin helps to protect the skin from the Sun`s harmful ultraviolet rays by reflecting or absorbing them. Freckles are triggered by exposure to sunlight. The Sun`s ultraviolet radiation causes melanocytes to make more melanin, which can cause freckles to appear or become darker." Yep. I stay out of the sun due to being pale, red-headed and freckled, and wear tons of sun screen when I go out. I just had a basal cell carcinoma removed from the side of my nose and had a hole the size of a dime cut out. I`m a redhead too, fair skin, blue eyes. I had a melanoma removed about 4 years ago. Apparently we with red hair and my colouring have a gene which causes changes to occur and allow us melanoma. Lucky us, huh?

The Short Message Service—Point to Point (SMS-PP)—was originally defined in GSM recommendation 03.40, which is now maintained in 3GPP as TS 23.040. [38] [39] GSM 03.41 (now 3GPP TS 23.041) defines the Short Message Service—Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB), which allows messages (advertising, public information, etc.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified geographical area. [40] [41] Messages are sent to a short message service center (SMSC), which provides a " store and forward " mechanism. It attempts to send messages to the SMSC`s recipients. If a recipient is not reachable, the SMSC queues the message for later retry. [42] Some SMSCs also provide a "forward and forget" option where transmission is tried only once. Both mobile terminated (MT, for messages sent to a mobile handset) and mobile originating (MO, for those sent from the mobile handset) operations are supported. Message delivery is " best effort ," so there are no guarantees that a message will actually be delivered to its recipient, but delay or complete loss of a message is uncommon, typically affecting less than 5 percent of messages. [43] Some providers allow users to request delivery reports, either via the SMS settings of most modern phones, or by prefixing each message with *0# or *N#. However, the exact meaning of confirmations varies from reaching the network, to being queued for sending, to being sent, to receiving a confirmation of receipt from the target device, and users are often not informed of the specific type of success being reported.[ citation needed ] SMS is a stateless communication protocol in which every SMS message is considered entirely independent of other messages. Enterprise applications using SMS as a communication channel for stateful dialogue (where an MO reply message is paired to a specific MT message) requires that session management be maintained external to the protocol.[ citation needed ] Transmission of short messages between the SMSC and the handset is done whenever using the Mobile Application Part (MAP) of the SS7 protocol. [44] Messages are sent with the MAP MO- and MT-ForwardSM operations, whose payload length is limited by the constraints of the signaling protocol to precisely 140 bytes (140 bytes * 8 bits / byte = 1120 bits). Short messages can be encoded using a variety of alphabets: the default GSM 7-bit alphabet , the 8-bit data alphabet , and the 16-bit UCS-2 alphabet. [45] Depending on which alphabet the subscriber has configured in the handset, this leads to the maximum individual short message sizes of 160 7- bit characters, 140 8-bit characters, or 70 16-bit characters. GSM 7-bit alphabet support is mandatory for GSM handsets and network elements, [45] but characters in languages such as Hindi, Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, or Cyrillic alphabet languages (e.g., Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Bulgarian, etc.) must be encoded using the 16-bit UCS-2 character encoding (see Unicode ). Routing data and other metadata is additional to the payload size.[ citation needed ] Larger content ( concatenated SMS , multipart or segmented SMS, or "long SMS") can be sent using multiple messages, in which case each message will start with a User Data Header (UDH) containing segmentation information. Since UDH is part of the payload, the number of available characters per segment is lower: 153 for 7-bit encoding, 134 for 8-bit encoding and 67 for 16-bit encoding. The receiving handset is then responsible for reassembling the message and presenting it to the user as one long message. While the standard theoretically permits up to 255 segments, [46] 6 to 8 segment messages are the practical maximum,[ citation needed ] and long messages are often billed as equivalent to multiple SMS messages. Some providers have offered length-oriented pricing schemes for messages, although that type of pricing structure is rapidly disappearing.[ citation needed ] SMS gateway providers facilitate SMS traffic between businesses and mobile subscribers, including SMS for enterprises, content delivery, and entertainment services involving SMS, e.g. TV voting. Considering SMS messaging performance and cost, as well as the level of messaging services, SMS gateway providers can be classified as aggregators or SS7 providers.[ citation needed ] The aggregator model is based on multiple agreements with mobile carriers to exchange two-way SMS traffic into and out of the operator`s SMSC , also known as local termination model. Aggregators lack direct access into the SS7 protocol, which is the protocol where the SMS messages are exchanged. SMS messages are delivered to the operator`s SMSC, but not the subscriber`s handset; the SMSC takes care of further handling of the message through the SS7 network.[ citation needed ] Another type of SMS gateway provider is based on SS7 connectivity to route SMS messages, also known as international termination model. The advantage of this model is the ability to route data directly through SS7, which gives the provider total control and visibility of the complete path during SMS routing. This means SMS messages can be sent directly to and from recipients without having to go through the SMSCs of other mobile operators. Therefore, it is possible to avoid delays and message losses, offering full delivery guarantees of messages and optimized routing. This model is particularly efficient when used in mission-critical messaging and SMS used in corporate communications. Moreover, these SMS gateway providers are providing branded SMS services with masking but after misuse of these gateways most countries`s Governments have taken serious steps to block these gateways.[ citation needed ] Subscriber-originated messages are transported from a handset to a service center, and may be destined for mobile users, subscribers on a fixed network, or Value-Added Service Providers (VASPs) , also known as application-terminated. Subscriber-terminated messages are transported from the service center to the destination handset, and may originate from mobile users, from fixed network subscribers, or from other sources such as VASPs.[ citation needed ] On some carriers nonsubscribers can send messages to a subscriber`s phone using an Email-to-SMS gateway . Additionally, many carriers, including AT&T Mobility , T-Mobile USA , [47] Sprint , [48] and Verizon Wireless , [49] offer the ability to do this through their respective web sites.[ citation needed ] For example, an AT&T subscriber whose phone number was 555-555-5555 would receive e-mails addressed to 5555555555@txt.att.net as text messages. Subscribers can easily reply to these SMS messages, and the SMS reply is sent back to the original email address. Sending email to SMS is free for the sender, but the recipient is subject to the standard delivery charges. Only the first 160 characters of an email message can be delivered to a phone, and only 160 characters can be sent from a phone. However, longer messages may be broken up into multiple texts, depending upon the telephone service provider. [50] [51] Text-enabled fixed-line handsets are required to receive messages in text format. However, messages can be delivered to nonenabled phones using text-to-speech conversion . [52] Short messages can send binary content such as ringtones or logos, as well as Over-the-air programming (OTA) or configuration data. Such uses are a vendor-specific extension of the GSM specification and there are multiple competing standards, although Nokia `s Smart Messaging is common. An alternative way for sending such binary content is EMS messaging, which is standardized and not dependent on vendors.[ citation needed ] SMS is used for M2M ( Machine to Machine ) communication. For instance, there is an LED display machine controlled by SMS, and some vehicle tracking companies use SMS for their data transport or telemetry needs. SMS usage for these purposes is slowly being superseded by GPRS services owing to their lower overall cost.[ citation needed ] GPRS is offered by smaller telco players as a route of sending SMS text to reduce the cost of SMS texting internationally. [53] Many mobile and satellite transceiver units support the sending and receiving of SMS using an extended version of the Hayes command set , a specific command language originally developed for the Hayes Smartmodem 300- baud modem in 1977. [54] [ citation needed ] The connection between the terminal equipment and the transceiver can be realized with a serial cable (e.g., USB ), a Bluetooth link, an infrared link, etc. Common AT commands include AT+CMGS (send message), AT+CMSS (send message from storage), AT+CMGL (list messages) and AT+CMGR (read message). [55] Mobile-terminated short messages can be used to deliver digital content such as news alerts, financial information, logos, and ring tones. The first premium-rate media content delivered via the SMS system was the world`s first paid downloadable ringing tones, as commercially launched by Saunalahti (later Jippii Group, now part of Elisa Grous), in 1998. Initially, only Nokia branded phones could handle them. By 2002 the ringtone business globally had exceeded $1 billion of service revenues, and nearly US$5 billion by 2008.[ citation needed ] Today, they are also used to pay smaller payments online—for example, for file-sharing services, in mobile application stores, or VIP section entrance. Outside the online world, one can buy a bus ticket or beverages from ATM, pay a parking ticket, order a store catalog or some goods (e.g., discount movie DVDs), make a donation to charity, and much more.[ citation needed ] Premium-rated messages are also used in Donors Message Service to collect money for charities and foundations. DMS was first launched at April 1, 2004, and is very popular in the Czech Republic .[ citation needed ] For example, the Czech people sent over 1.5 million messages to help South Asia recover from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami .[ citation needed ] The Value-added service provider (VASP) providing the content submits the message to the mobile operator`s SMSC(s) using an TCP/IP protocol such as the short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) or the External Machine Interface (EMI) . The SMSC delivers the text using the normal Mobile Terminated delivery procedure. The subscribers are charged extra for receiving this premium content; the revenue is typically divided between the mobile network operator and the VASP either through revenue share or a fixed transport fee. Submission to the SMSC is usually handled by a third party.[ citation needed ] Mobile-originated short messages may also be used in a premium-rated manner for services such as televoting . In this case, the VASP providing the service obtains a short code from the telephone network operator, and subscribers send texts to that number. The payouts to the carriers vary by carrier; percentages paid are greatest on the lowest-priced premium SMS services. Most information providers should expect to pay about 45 percent of the cost of the premium SMS up front to the carrier. The submission of the text to the SMSC is identical to a standard MO Short Message submission, but once the text is at the SMSC, the Service Center (SC) identifies the Short Code as a premium service. The SC will then direct the content of the text message to the VASP, typically using an IP protocol such as SMPP or EMI. Subscribers are charged a premium for the sending of such messages, with the revenue typically shared between the network operator and the VASP. Short codes only work within one country, they are not international.[ citation needed ] An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international number format, such as "+44 762 480 5000"), which can be used in place of short codes for SMS reception in several applications, such as TV voting, product promotions and campaigns. Long numbers work internationally, allow businesses to use their own numbers, rather than short codes, which are usually shared across many brands. Additionally, long numbers are nonpremium inbound numbers.[ citation needed ] Threaded SMS is a visual styling orientation of SMS message history that arranges messages to and from a contact in chronological order on a single screen. It was first invented by a developer working to implement the SMS client for the BlackBerry, who was looking to make use of the blank screen left below the message on a device with a larger screen capable of displaying far more than the usual 160 characters, and was inspired by threaded Reply conversations in email. [56] Visually, this style of representation provides a back-and-forth chat-like history for each individual contact. [57] Hierarchical-threading at the conversation-level (as typical in blogs and on-line messaging boards)is not widely supported by SMS messaging clients. This limitation is due to the fact that there is no session identifier or subject-line passed back and forth between sent and received messages in the header data (as specified by SMS protocol) from which the client device can properly thread an incoming message to a specific dialogue, or even to a specific message within a dialogue. Most smart phone text-messaging-clients are able to create some contextual threading of "group messages" which narrows the context of the thread around the common interests shared by group members. On the other hand, advanced enterprise messaging applications which push messages from a remote server often display a dynamically changing reply number (multiple numbers used by the same sender), which is used along with the sender`s phone number to create session-tracking capabilities analogous to the functionality that cookies provide for web-browsing.[ citation needed ] As one pervasive example, this technique is used to extend the functionality of many Instant Messenger (IM) applications such that they are able to communicate over two-way dialogues with the much larger SMS user-base. [58] In cases where multiple reply numbers are used by the enterprise server to maintain the dialogue, the visual conversation threading on the client may be separated into multiple threads.[ citation needed ] While SMS reached its popularity as a person-to-person messaging, another type of SMS is growing fast: application-to-person (A2P) messaging. A2P is a type of SMS sent from a subscriber to an application or sent from an application to a subscriber. It is commonly used by financial institutions, airlines, hotel booking sites, social networks, and other organizations sending SMS from their systems to their customers.[ citation needed ] All commercial satellite phone networks except ACeS and OptusSat support SMS.[ citation needed ] While early Iridium handsets only support incoming SMS, later models can also send messages. The price per message varies for different networks. Unlike some mobile phone networks, there is no extra charge for sending international SMS or to send one to a different satellite phone network. SMS can sometimes be sent from areas where the signal is too poor to make a voice call. Satellite phone networks usually have web-based or email-based SMS portals where one can send free SMS to phones on that particular network. Unlike dedicated texting systems like the Simple Network Paging Protocol and Motorola`s ReFLEX protocol, [60] SMS message delivery is not guaranteed, and many implementations provide no mechanism through which a sender can determine whether an SMS message has been delivered in a timely manner. [61] SMS messages are generally treated as lower-priority traffic than voice, and various studies have shown that around 1% to 5% of messages are lost entirely, even during normal operation conditions, [62] and others may not be delivered until long after their relevance has passed. [63] The use of SMS as an emergency notification service in particular has been questioned. [64] The Global Service for Mobile communications ( GSM ), with the greatest worldwide number of users, succumbs to several security vulnerabilities. In the GSM, only the airway traffic between the Mobile Station (MS) and the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is optionally encrypted with a weak and broken stream cipher ( A5/1 or A5/2 ). The authentication is unilateral and also vulnerable. There are also many other security vulnerabilities and shortcomings. [65] Such vulnerabilities are inherent to SMS as one of the superior and well-tried services with a global availability in the GSM networks. SMS messaging has some extra security vulnerabilities due to its store-and-forward feature, and the problem of fake SMS that can be conducted via the Internet. When a user is roaming, SMS content passes through different networks, perhaps including the Internet, and is exposed to various vulnerabilities and attacks. Another concern arises when an adversary gets access to a phone and reads the previous unprotected messages. [66] In October 2005, researchers from Pennsylvania State University published an analysis of vulnerabilities in SMS-capable cellular networks. The researchers speculated that attackers might exploit the open functionality of these networks to disrupt them or cause them to fail, possibly on a nationwide scale. [67] The GSM industry has identified a number of potential fraud attacks on mobile operators that can be delivered via abuse of SMS messaging services. The most serious threat is SMS Spoofing, which occurs when a fraudster manipulates address information in order to impersonate a user that has roamed onto a foreign network and is submitting messages to the home network. Frequently, these messages are addressed to destinations outside the home network—with the home SMSC essentially being "hijacked" to send messages into other networks.[ citation needed ] The only sure way of detecting and blocking spoofed messages is to screen incoming mobile-originated messages to verify that the sender is a valid subscriber and that the message is coming from a valid and correct location. This can be implemented by adding an intelligent routing function to the network that can query originating subscriber details from the home location register (HLR) before the message is submitted for delivery. This kind of intelligent routing function is beyond the capabilities of legacy messaging infrastructure. [68] In an effort to limit telemarketers who had taken to bombarding users with hordes of unsolicited messages, India introduced new regulations in September 2011, including a cap of 3,000 SMS messages per subscriber per month, or an average of 100 per subscriber per day. [69] Due to representations received from some of the service providers and consumers, TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) has raised this limit to 200 SMS messages per SIM per day in case of prepaid services, and up to 6,000 SMS messages per SIM per month in case of postpaid services with effect from 1 November 2011. [70] However, it was ruled unconstitutional by the Delhi high court, but there are some limitations. [71] A Flash SMS is a type of SMS that appears directly on the main screen without user interaction and is not automatically stored in the inbox. [72] It can be useful in emergencies , such as a fire alarm or cases of confidentiality , as in delivering one-time passwords . [73] In Germany in 2010 almost half a million "silent SMS" messages were sent by the federal police, customs and the secret service " Verfassungsschutz " (offices for protection of the constitution). [74] These silent messages, also known as "silent TMS", "stealth SMS", "stealth ping" or "Short Message Type 0", [75] are used to locate a person and thus to create a complete movement profile. They do not show up on a display, nor trigger any acoustical signal when received. Their primary purpose was to deliver special services of the network operator to any cell phone. The mobile provider, often at the behest of the police, will capture data such as subscriber identification IMSI .[ citation needed ]

To protect the capital and generate income through investments in high quality fixed income securities like Debt / Money Market Instruments and Government Securities maturing on or before the maturity date of the Scheme. However, there can be no assurance that the investment objective of the scheme will be realized. The scheme is "oriented towards protection of capital" and "not with guaranteed returns". The scheme does not guarantee any returns. The orientation towards protection of capital originates from the structure of the Portfolio of the Scheme and not from any Bank guarantee, Insurance Cover etc. There is no assurance that the structure would provide the necessary protection of capital. # In view of Individual nature of Tax consequences, each investor is advised to consult his/her own professional tax advisor for availing tax deductions under Section 80G of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1961. "AAA (so)" Rating is being assigned by CRISIL and is only valid for HDFC Debt Fund for Cancer Cure - A 3 year Closed Ended Capital Protection Oriented Income Scheme. The rating only indicates highest degree of certainty regarding payment of face value of investment (excluding entry load charged, if any) to the Unit holders on maturity and is not an opinion on the stability of the scheme`s NAV before its maturity date. The rating will be reviewed on a quarterly basis. The Scheme offers only Dividend Option with Payout Facility. In line with the rationale of the Scheme, the Investors shall have the discretion to decide the percentage of donation to be made to the Indian Cancer Society out of the dividend declared, if any, (subject to deduction of tax at source, if any). Such discretion shall be exercised by the Investors by selecting any of the following option offered under the Dividend Payout Facility: Under this Option, Investors can donate 50% of the dividend amount to Indian Cancer Society and the rest shall be paid to the Unit holder. Under this Option, Investors can donate 100% of the dividend amount to Indian Cancer Society. Dividends, if declared, will be donated to the ICS (subject to deduction of tax at source, if any) as authorized by the Unit holder under 50% Dividend Donation Option or 100% Dividend Donation Option and the balance, if any will be paid (subject to deduction of tax at source, if any) to those Unit holders whose names appear in the Register of Unit holders on the record date. In case of valid applications received without indicating any choice of the Option, the 50% Dividend Donation Option shall be considered as the default option. Unfront commission shall be paid directly by the investor to the ARN Holder (AMFI registered Distributor) based on the investors` assessment of various factors including the service rendered by the ARN Holder. 1,000 thereafter per application under HDFCC during the NFO Period. In case of investors opting to switch into the Scheme from the existing Schemes of HDFC Mutual Fund (subject to completion of Lock-in Period, if any) during the New Fund Offer Period, the minimum amount is Units of HDFCC can be subscribed (in lots of 1 Unit) during the trading hours on all trading days on the NSE on which the Units are listed.