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Children sex in the village

Children sex in the village

Children sex in the village

MANDERSON, South Dakota — In almost any other context it would be a given, an expectation as simple as a dark cloud spitting rain. But when 12-year-old Carleigh Campbell tested proficient on the South Dakota achievement test last year, it was a rather astonishing feat. Campbell is a student at a school where four students have attempted suicide this year alone. Roughly four out of five of her neighbors are unemployed and well over half live in deep poverty. About 70% of the students in her community will eventually drop out of school. “I always think about how it could be happier. I think lots of people aren’t happy here. I always think I can cheer them up, so I try.” It’s against this backdrop that Carleigh met expectations on the state’s mandated exam, the only student out of about 150 in her school to do so. To state the obvious, Carleigh’s academic achievement is a bright spot in an epically dark place. Carleigh is a Native American sixth grader at the Wounded Knee School located on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, where a well-documented plague of poverty and violence has festered since the Oglala Sioux were forced onto the reservation more than a century ago. There is virtually no infrastructure, few jobs and no major economic engines. Families are destabilized by substance abuse and want. Children often go hungry and adults die young. These realities wash onto the schoolyards here with little runoff or relief, trapping generations of young people in hopelessness and despair. “We’re in an urgent situation, an emergency state,” said Alice Phelps, principal at the Wounded Knee School. “But underneath all the baggage is intelligence, potential, and these children all have that.” Few communities in America are as eager for a silver lining as the Lakota of the Pine Ridge reservation, situated on more than 2 million rambling acres, nudged up against the Black Hills and Badlands National Park. Nowhere is it more palpable than in the reservation’s schools, a jumble of public, private and federal systems that often overlap but rarely ever bolster the academic prospects of the most forgotten children in America. Carleigh Campbell, 6th grader at Wounded Knee school. She was the only student of 150 students who tested proficient on last year’€™s state exams. While the 565 Native American tribes recognized by the U.S. government enjoy sovereign status as separate nations, nearly all Indian education funding is tied up with federal strings. Unlike most public schools that rely largely on local tax money, there are virtually no private land owners on the reservations, so no taxpayers to tax. The government often pays as much as 60% of a reservation school’s budget compared to just 10% of the budget of a typical public school. When last year’s federal sequestration cuts kicked in, Indian country was hit first. The government is starting to own up to its failures. In a startling new draft report released in April by the federal Bureau of Indian Education, which oversees 183 schools on 64 reservations in 23 states, the agency draws attention to its own inability to deliver a quality education to Native students. BIE-funded schools are chronically failing and “one of the lowest-performing set of schools in the country,” according to the report. “BIE has never faced more urgent challenges,” the report said. “Each of these challenges has contributed to poor outcomes for BIE students.” During the 2012-2013 school year, only one out of four BIE-funded schools met state-defined proficiency standards, and one out of three are under restructuring due to chronic academic failure, according to the report. BIE students performed lower on national assessment tests than every other major urban school district other than Detroit Public Schools, the report says. BIE students also perform worse than American Indian students attending regular public schools. In 2011, 4th graders in the BIE scored 22 points lower in reading and 14 points lower in math on national proficiency tests than their Indian counterparts attending public schools.  BIE schools are typically located in some of the poorest, most geographically isolated regions of the country. Four of the five poorest counties in America are located on reservations. Shannon County, where Pine Ridge is located, is the second poorest with a per capita income of just $6,000-$8,000 a year. It’s also extremely difficult to attract quality teachers willing to relocate to remote outposts with limited quality housing and extreme quality of life issues. The BIE blames its failures on “an inconsistent commitment from political leadership,” institutional, budgetary and legal barriers as well as bureaucratic red tape among federal agencies. Those systemic issues have produced a disjointed system that has even clogged up the delivery of required materials, including textbooks. The BIE has had 33 leaders in 35 years, making a chaotic system that has not operated efficiently for decades even worse. Dr. Charles Roessel, director of the BIE, told msnbc that the agency is actively consulting with tribes across the country to identify ways the bureau can help tribes bolster the academic outcomes of their students. The draft report was the product of those consultations. Some challenges are obvious. “How do you get a quality teaching staff at a very remote part of the country where you don’t have a city to support or you don’t have the infrastructure and the salaries are lower?” Roessel said, adding, “The greatest impact in a classroom is the teacher and we need to improve the quality of that instruction. And we have to do it with our hands tied behind our back and our feet tied together, too.” Poor academic performance plagues American Indian students both on and off federal lands. Even as other historically oppressed minority groups like African Americans and Hispanics have made steady academic progress over the last decade, achievement among American Indian youth has stalled. Huge spikes in black and Hispanic high school graduation rates have pushed the country’s overall graduation rate to an all-time high, while the rate for Native American students is trending in the opposite direction. Compounding the poor academic outcomes is what advocates in Indian country describe as a history of broken treatises, lingering racism and chicanery. While tribes operate some of the BIE schools, the funding comes with various restrictions and benchmarks. And in the case of traditional public schools that operate near reservations and have a large number Indian students, funding goes directly to states and does not provide culturally relevant Indian education. “The central offices, they take their big cut out and they have everything, so by the time it gets to our children there’s very little money left and that’s one of the big problems,” Bryan Brewer, president of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, said on a recent afternoon during a town-hall style meeting between tribal members and BIE officials. “We don’t have enough money for facilities. If we need to buy something, a furnace, something like that, we have to cut out a teacher. It’s that bad.” The economic and political implications are worst in states with the largest populations of American Indians, including New Mexico, Montana, Oklahoma and South Dakota. “There are challenging state and tribal dynamics. There’s history involved here and the reality of sometimes incompatible bureaucracies, the lack of capacity and understanding of one another and even alternative goals,” said William Mendoza, the executive director of the White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. “The experience has been one of a history of tragedy where the effort, both real and perceived, was to assimilate American Indians.” Joe Giago (holding bow) with his family at their home in Pine Ridge. Joe makes traditional bows for locals and national and international collectors. He is self-taught, and it took him over a year of study to perfect the technique. The bows are made from Ash wood, buffalo horn, and the sinews of buffaloes, with horse hair for adornment. The ghosts of bygone eras when Indian students were forced into boarding schools, had their hair forcibly cut and were often beaten for speaking their native languages, continue to haunt Indian Country. “Those dynamics affect decision making and the reconciliation as they’ve communicated to us has not been fully realized in some communities throughout the country,” said Mendoza, a Lakota who for years taught language arts on the Pine Ridge reservation. Ahniwake Rose, executive director of the National Indian Education Association, called the tangle of systems tying up the education of Native youth “a web of confusion” and the lack of adequate funding to schools “a direct violation of treatises.” “We’ve got to all live together so let’s get our education and do what we can to improve our people, improve our livelihood, to improve our future because you can’t depend on the government.” “Tribes never gave up the sovereignty of the education of their students. Native people are the only people in the country that there’s a federal obligation to educate. It’s in the constitution and in all of our treatises that the federal government provides our education. Everyone else’s education is mostly a state rights issue,” she said. The widespread failures have left countless Native American students trapped in an all too familiar cycle of poverty, violence and substance abuse. And they’re almost wholly unable to access a quality education, the surest path into the middle-class. The abysmal state of education on the Pine Ridge reservation has sparked a renewed interest in wresting back control of educating its youth. Language immersion programs have been launched. An all-girls school is being planned. Some groups are pushing for state charter school legislation to allow for largely autonomous start-up schools. And there’s been new momentum around crafting more culturally relevant curricula for young Indians who’ve largely lost their spiritual and historic connections to the rich history of the Lakota, members of one of the seven subtribes that make up the Great Sioux Nation. “The tribe has not had a say in how our children will be educated and we’re standing up,” Brewer said. “Let us decide what our children will learn, how they will be educated because the BIE, they haven’t been successful at all. On the best of days, Carleigh Campbell puts on a smile and tries her hardest to lose herself in a whir of homework and class projects. A wisp thin girl with dark hair pulled into a loose pony tail, Carleigh’s a worker bee: studious, helpful, outgoing and intentional. “At times life will be tough but other times, if I’m not thinking about what makes it tough, it just gets easier,” Carleigh said on a recent morning between classes at the Wounded Knee School. “I don’t really spend very much time worrying if I’m focused on something else.” Carleigh Campbell, 12, 6th grader at Wounded Knee school with her grandmother Shirley Campbell outside of Manderson on the Pine Ridge reservation. But the little girl isn’t immune to the generational curses that afflict so many in this place. Her mother battles alcohol addiction and is estranged from the family and Carleigh’s hardworking, single-father. And at age 12, the pressure on Carleigh to be a good enough student to make it to college and off the reservation one day can be daunting. On the worst of days she turns to schoolwork to keep from being overwhelmed by worry and fear: Worry that her mother’s drinking will tear her family further apart. And fear that it might spread to her older siblings, sinking them into the kind of self-destruction that has consumed so many others here. Sometimes she cries, but mostly she just dreams about how life on the “rez” could be. “I always think about how it could be happier. I think lots of people aren’t happy here. I always think I can cheer them up, so I try,” she said. Carleigh’s father, who works as a teacher’s aide at the school, said he’s inspired by all of his children for their perseverance, especially Carleigh, his youngest. “They give me a reason to keep on keeping on, you know,” Ron Campbell said. “I think I’m doing okay and I just want my kids to do better than me. I mean, that’s what I tell them every day, just do better than me. I don’t care if you want to live here or not, but just do better.” Growing up on Pine Ridge, Campbell said suffering is woven into nearly every part of daily life. The life expectancy is just 48 years old for men and 52 for women. The obituary sections of tribal newspapers are dotted with young-ish looking faces. As a teenager, Campbell lost nearly 10 friends to violent deaths, either by suicide or drunk driving. He’s one of the few who went away to school, came back, and found meaningful employment. “We’re all on our own here,” he said. “I mean, it’s kind of bad, you know. I know a lot of my friends and everything, they haven’t had work in who knows how long. And they just try to scrape by with government assistance and whatever.” Students leave class and wait for the bus on the last day of classes at the Wounded Knee District School in Manderson, South Dakota. Educating children in this environment is extremely difficult, he said. Inexperienced teachers at the school, non-Indians mostly from faraway worlds that most of the kids can’t even imagine, don’t often have the cultural competency to unpack the complexities of the students’ lives. “I try to help these new teachers come and understand that, you know, when there’s a kid that comes and they have an attitude or something like that or they’re not listening or they don’t want to do the work, it’s because maybe they’re hungry or maybe their head’s full of bugs and it’s driving them nuts or something like that,” Campbell said. “A lot of these new teachers come from good families, you know. They expect a certain level and that’s good. They should expect it. But at the same time they slept and ate good last night.” Wounded Knee principal Alice Phelps, who spent many of her formative years on the reservation with her Lakota mother, said she’s gotten creative about trying to meet the great needs of her students. She’s implemented a tighter schedule and extended the school day to squeeze more instruction time out of the day. She’s been meeting with parents to urge them to take a more active role in their kids’ school lives. And in recent weeks, Phelps said she announced that there’d be a shake-up of the entire teaching staff to improve the quality of instruction offered at the school. Phelps said the time for excuses is over. “You cannot look at yourself as a victim. You’re not a victim. You got to empower yourself and rise above and get educated,” she said. “We’ve got to all live together so let’s get our education and do what we can to improve our people, improve our livelihood, to improve our future because you can’t depend on the government.” Carleigh Campbell wants to be one of the ones who makes it. She dreams of going away somewhere to a big college in a big college town, where the buildings gleam and successful people crowd businesses the way people on the reservation crowd in crumbling trailers. “Because here there’s not very much people around, and if I go to a bigger city there’s more people that are like more successful and stuff, and I guess they’ll help me,” Carleigh said. “But I think I should come back here and help out some. Because lots of people here are struggling and I think over time, it’s probably going to get worse, so it think I should just come back and help.” Editor’s note: This is the first of  three stories on Pine Ridge , exploring the education, social and economic issues facing Native Americans on the reservation. 

Join us for the Fonseca and Friends Valentine`s Day Show on February 14 at 7:30pm at Denver Improv Comedy Club & Dinner Theater. A portion of proceeds from this show benefit Easterseals Colorado! Guaranteed laughs for a great cause. Purchase tickets by clicking the link above. 5th Annual A Perfect Pairing at RMV Camp - May 5, 2018 Easterseals Colorado is proud to partner with local breweries, distilleries, and restaurants for A Perfect Pairing on Saturday, May 5 at 5pm. Proceeds will send 20+ children with disabilities to our Rocky Mtn Village Camp. Click the link above to purchase tickets or sponsorships. Feeling overwhelmed with social security disability? We can help! Webinars are designed to walk you through the process from start to finish. Series 1 Webinars will take place on Thursdays through Feb 15 at 4:30pm MST. Series 2 starts Mar 22. Click the link above for more info. Easterseals Colorado is requesting bids to create and develop an outreach campaign for family caregivers. This project is funded by Colorado State General Funds as part of the Respite Care Task Force project. Click here to read more on the project parameters. Thank You to Our 7th Annual Season of Light Gala Supporters! Thanks to you, the 7th Annual Season of Lights Gala honoring Don Hindman and Johnson Storage & Moving raised $309,000! These funds will create respite resources for people with disabilities to ensure that caregivers get breaks and have support and options for care. Easterseals Colorado`s events bring our supporters and members together throughout the year to sustain and empower each other and to enhance our clients quality of life. Rocky Mountain Village Camp is hiring summer staff! Head Male and Female Counselors, Cabin Counselors, Counselors-in-Training, Climbing and Zipline Specialists, Horse Wranglers, Outdoor Living Skills Specialists, Kitchen and Maintenance staff. Apply today!

The kindhearted ladies were turned away by nurseries, hospitals and hospices as wool used wasn`t sterilised Members of a Women’s Institute who knitted a miniature village for sick children were told it could not be given to them because the wool was a health and safety risk. The ladies of Sidford WI in Devon spent a year creating the 6ft by 4ft soft intricate landscape - which boasts miniature people, houses, animals, a farm and a church. It was then offered to children’s hospitals, hospices and nurseries to bring comfort to poorly youngsters, but was rejected over fears the wool could not be sterilised. Around 30 members of Sidford WI in rural Devon had teamed up to knit the intricate creation and used materials deemed safe for children`s toys. The group initially offered the village to Children’s Hospice South West who told them they were unable to accept it because they could not sterilise it. They then approached various nurseries and hospitals in the local area who snubbed their gift because it didn’t come with the correct safety certification. Marion Baker, president of the Sidford WI, said: `It has everything you would expect to see in your typical village.` Jean Bridgeman, a 69-year-old grandmother-of-eight who organised the mammoth project in her weekly craft sessions, says it took a whole year to knit. Ms Bridgeman said: `We were all a bit fed up with knitting scarves so decided to do something a bit different. `Everyone got involved in the knitting and we all really enjoyed doing it. We really felt it would bring a smile to some young children’s faces. `But when we tried several nurseries and organisations we were told that the village couldn’t be used because the wool couldn’t be sterilised. `Apparently, it didn’t have the correct health and safety certificate. It was such a shame as we had always planned to give it to a local children’s hospice or hospital.` Beryl Kingman, 72, another of the creators, added: `We didn’t think of this ‘health and safety’ when we started it. `We started with the intention of giving it away to four or five-year-olds to play with. `But because of health and safety issues it cannot be sterilised or disinfected, so you would have a problem with a children’s hospice or waiting rooms.` The ladies decided to display the village at a local horticultural show where it caught the eye of a charity volunteer. He told them of a South African orphanage he said would be absolutely delighted to have it for the youngsters. The giant toy has now been boxed up in sections, and is ready to be dispatched in the coming weeks. Marion Baker, president of the Sidford WI, said: `It has everything you would expect to see in your typical village. `It’s very intricate - there are roses around the cottages and even the cows have udders.

FROM the outside, it looks more like a holiday park or a conference centre. But on the inside, the small white cabins play home to convicted sex offenders, living out a life in isolation from the rest of the world. Surrounded by greenery, well kept streets and away from normal society, ‘Miracle Village’ sits just outside Pahokee in Florida. Miracle Village — town for sex offenders in Florida. Picture: BBCSource:Supplied The small homes mean that men and women convicted of child sex crimes can live our their lives, without breaking the laws of coming in to contact with children. The so-called village, as featured on BBC documentary Second Chance Sex Offenders , explores the insides of the village and how the sex offenders live with one another. In an interview with The Mirror , Sheriff Gordon Smith said offenders “can’t live within 2,500ft (762m) of any children congregate, churches and bus stops” and that red signs are put in place warning of a “convicted Sexual Predator” outside the criminals’ homes featuring the names of the perpetrators. The village, which used to house sugar cane workers, houses around 100 sex offenders. In 2015, photographer Sofia Valiente spent five weeks living at the village and documenting her time with the residents. Speaking to Vice at the time, Valiente said not all residents were “monsters”. “Anytime a sex offender is mentioned in the news there is that general fear,” she said. “But after speaking with some of the residents, I saw that they weren’t monsters. “There were some men who had physically molested a minor, although no one in the village was a “diagnosed” paedophile — they don’t accept serial rapists, paedophiles, or people that have committed violent crimes.” Miracle Village — town for sex offenders in Florida. Picture: BBCSource:Supplied In the documentary, which will air on the BBC later this month, host Stacey Dooley interviews offenders who live within the community. Speaking to resident Chris Dawson, who has lived in the community for four years, the man was convicted after having sex with his girlfriend when she was 14-years-old. “She lied to me about her age and had fake ID,” he said. “I had no idea.” Mr Dawson, who now has a 25-year-old girlfriend who he met at church, said he believed the girl was also 18. “All her friends believed her so I believed she was 18 too,” he said. Miracle Village — town for sex offenders in Florida. Picture: BBCSource:Supplied The founder of the village, Pat Powers, served 12 years behind bars for being involved with his students, and said the community give sex offenders a second chance. “You can look at my past and say was he one of the top racquet ball coaches in the world or a sex offender,” he said.

The 3rd Annual Victoria Village Select Invitational Tournament was held on September 15th - 17th, 2017.  Results can be found on our Selects page.  On behalf of the Executive, I’d like to welcome all parents and participants to the 45th consecutive year of House League Hockey within the Victoria Village community. We at Victoria Village have prepared for additional expansion this year with the further addition of 2 teams (32 spots) and room for over 680 participaants within our combined programs.  With well over 1300 House League game and practice hours allocated, it promises to be another exciting Season. Existing participants are welcome to register at any time and new participants are welcome to register at 12:01am on Friday, April 21st.  Simply follow the Registration tab to your left. In Celebration of “Canada150”, we at Victoria Village has extended an offer of an immediate Cash Injection of $50,000 to the City of Toronto to be allocated to Facility upgrades and hopefully, the City of Toronto will be receptive to our offer and match that amount. Again, the Season is comprised of no fewer than 24 games, 24 practices and of course, Team Uniforms and photographs are included in the Registration fee. All participants will be contacted prior to Thanksgiving weekend and informed of either their Team assignment and/or assessment for assignment which will take place in early October.  Should you not receive a call prior to October Thanksgiving, please email us and we’ll get it sorted out but please note; with over 630 participants within our combined programs, it may take up to 48 hours to get back to you. Every attempt will be made by the league to ensure that teams are balanced however there may be anomalies that will require us to intervene and move players from one team to another within the playing season.  This is undertaken in the best interest of all participants and will be done early as possible. Playoffs will commence on the week of March 27th and this year’s Championship games will be held on April 1st. In closing, I would like to extend our most sincere thanks to all those dedicated volunteers who have offered to Coach or Manage teams this season.  Our Director of Coaching & Communications is currently reviewing all applicants and will be in touch shortly with additional details and/or team assignment. A copy of the "Code of Conduct" can be found by clicking on the "Code of Conduct" link on the left side of the home page. The document can also be printed out for your convenience. Please take the time to read and understand it. To provide an organization wherein a youngster of any race, creed, sex or religion can compete under controlled conditions in a game of hockey with equality in (as close as possible) age grouping, training and participation time. To promote, govern and improve organized hockey within its operating area. To foster among its members, supporters and teams a general community spirit. To maintain and increase interest in the game of hockey. To exercise a general supervision and direction over the playing interests of the players, Coaches and Executives with the emphasis on the enhancement of good character, sportsmanship and citizenship. Our slogan has always been "Putting Fun Back, Into The Game Of Hockey". Please remember that Victoria Village Hockey is a "Not-for-Profit", community based Hockey League that offers a Hockey program with the emphasis on "HAVING FUN" and we are here to provide a place for children of all ages, races and creed to learn and play our great game of Hockey.

A guide for community health workers, This is a reference book to help you meet the needs of disabled children. You need not read it from cover to cover. Use it to look up particular information as you need it. To learn how the book is organized, and why, we suggest you read ABOUT THIS BOOK at the beginning. Also, please read the introduction to each of the 3 main parts of the book. These chapters have page edges with a short black line, to help you find the beginning of PARTS 1, 2, and 3. To work more effectively with disabled children, we strongly suggest that you read the first 5 chapters of PART 1. These will help you to examine a child, to identify different disabilities, and to keep important records in an easy way. THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO FIND INFORMATION THAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR: Check the list of CONTENTS at the beginning of the book. This tells you what each chapter is about and gives the page numbers. Look in the INDEX at the end of the book. It lists topics in alphabetical order. (The edges of these pages are all black.) If you do not know what disability a child has, use the GUIDE FOR IDENTIFYING DISABILITIES on Page52 to 58. It lists the common signs of different disabilities and gives the page numbers. (There are several black lines on the edges of these pages.) in the margin of some pages. It appears where there is information for cerebral palsy. If you want more information than is in this book, see the list of books and teaching materials entitled REFERENCES (Where to Get More Information), Page 637. If you do not know what some words mean, look in the LIST OF SPECIAL OR DIFFICULT WORDS, Page 643. Words explained in this LIST are written in italics when first used in a chapter. IMPORTANT: To find all the information you will need for one disabled child, you will usually need to look in several different chapters. To know where to look, follow the page references shown. These are explained inside the back cover. * Asterisk: This little star is called an asterisk. It is used to indicate that there is more information about a word or an idea at the bottom of the page. For more information on how to use this book, see the inside of the back cover. This book is dedicated to disabled children everywhere, This book is an attempt to pull together basic information to help you meet the needs of village children with a wide range of disabilities. We have done the best we can, given our limitations. We know the book is not perfect and that it has weaknesses and perhaps some mistakes. We urge anyone reviewing or using the book, whether a disabled person, parent, health worker, or professional, to send us all your criticism and suggestions. Help us to make improvements for a later edition. Thank you. PART 1. WORKING WITH THE CHILD AND FAMILY: Chapter 12. Common Birth Defects (cleft lip, extra or joined fingers, incomplete l and arthrogryposis) Chapter 13. Children Who Stay Small or Have Weak Bones (includes Rickets, Brittle Bone Disease, and Dwarfism) Village Involvement in the Rehabilitation, Social Integration, and Rights of Disabled Children This book has been a cooperative effort. Many persons have contributed in different ways. Some have helped to write or rewrite different sections. Some have criticized early drafts; Some have used it in their programs and sent us feedback; Some have sent original ideas or technologies that we have tested and then included. In all, persons or programs from 27 countries on 6 continents (North and South America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia) have contributed. The entire book has been carefully reviewed by specialists in related fields: physical therapists (PTs), occupational therapists (OTs), orthotists, prosthetists, wheelchair designers, rehabilitation engineers, and leaders from among the disabled. We cannot include the names of all those who have helped in so many ways, but the help of the following has been outstanding: Sophie Levitt, PT; Ann Hallum, PT; Terry Nordstrom, PT; Anne Affleck, OT; Mike Miles, rehab planner and critic; Christine Miles, special educator; Farhat Rashid, PT; Bruce Curtis, peer disabled group counselor; Ralf Hotchkiss, wheelchair rider/engineer; Alice Hadley, PT; Jan Postma, PT; Jean-Baptiste Richardier, prosthetist; Claude Simonnot, MD/prosthetist; Wayne Hampton, MD/prosthetist; Jim Breakey, prosthetist; Wally Motlock, orthotist; Valery Taylor, PT; Dr. P. K. Sethi, orthopedic surgeon/prosthetist; Pam Zinkin, pediatrician/CBR expert; Paul Silva, wheelchair builder; David Morley, pediatrician; Elía Landeros, PT; Teresa páez, social worker; Rafiq Jaffer, rehab specialist; Kris Buckner, parent of many adopted disabled children; Barbara Anderson, PT; Don Caston, rehab engineer; Greg Dixon, Director, Partners` Appropriate Technology In Health; Susan Hammerman, Director, Rehabilitation International; Carole Coleman, specialist in sign language; Suzanne Reier, recreation therapist; Sarah Grossman, PT; Donald Laub, plastic surgeon; Jean Kohn, MD in rehabilitation; Bob Friedricks, orthotist; Katherine Myers, spinal cord injury nurse; Grace Warren, PT in leprosy; Jean M. Watson, PT in leprosy; David Sanders, pediatrician; Jane Neville, leprosy expert; Stanley Browne, MD, leprosy; Alexandra Enders, OT; John McGill, prosthetist; Victoria Sheffield, Rita Leavell, MD, Jeff Watson, J. Kirk Horton, Lawrence Campbell, Helen Keller International; Owen Wrigley, IHAP; Roswitha and Kenneth Klee, Winfried Lichtemberger, Jeanne R. Kenmore, Christoffel Blindenmission; Judy Deutsch, PT; Jane Thiboutot, PT; R. L. Huckstep, MD; Linda Goode, PT; Susan Johnson, PT; David Hall, child health consultant; Ann Goerdt, PT for WHO; Mira Shiva, MD; Nigel Shapcott, seating specialist; Ann Yeadon, educator; Charles Reilly, sign language consultant; Eli Savanack, Gallaudet College; John Gray, MD; Molly Thorburn, MD; Lonny Shavelson, MD; Margaret Mackenzie, medical anthropologist; Rainer Arnhold, MD; Gulbadan Habibi, Caroline Arnold, Philip Kgosana, Garren Lumpkin, UNICEF. Above all, We would like to thank the team of disabled village rehabilitation workers in Project PROJIMO, Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico, along with the hundreds of disabled children and their families. Their involvement and interaction in exploring, testing, inventing, and discovering simplified alternatives has led to the formation of this book. Key among the PROJIMO team are: Marcelo Acevedo, Miguel Alvarez, Adelina Bastidas, Roberto Fajardo, Teresa Gárate, Bruce Hobson, Concepción Lara, Inés León, Ramon León, Polo Leyva, Armando Nevárez, María Picos, Adelina Pliego, Elijio Reyes, Cecilia Rodríguez, Josefa Rodríguez, Concepción Rubio, Moisés Salas, Rosa Salcido, Asunción Soto, Javier Valverde, Florentino Velázquez, Efrain Zamora, Miguel Zamora. For this book we have borrowed information, ideas, illustrations, methods, and designs from many sources, published and unpublished. Often credit has been given, but not always. If you notice we have `borrowed` from your material and neglected to give you credit, please accept our unspoken thanks and apologies. For their excellent and dedicated work in preparing the manuscript for publication, special thanks go to: Jane Maxwell, editing, page design, and art production; Irene Yen, editing and paste-up; Kathy Alberts, Elizabeth de Avila, Martín Bustos, Mary Klein, Carlos Romero and Marjorie Wang, paste-up; Martín Bustos and Anna Muñoz-Briggs. Spanish translation; Myra Polinger, typing; Lynn Gordon, Bill Bower, Phil Pasmanick and Dan Periman, general review; Alison Davis, reference section research; Elizabeth de Avila, Don Baker, Agnes Batteiger, Jane Bavelas, Leda Bosworth, Renée Burgard, Michael Lang, Betty Page, Pearl Snyder, Tinker Spar, Paula Tanous and Roger Wilson, proofreading; Lino Montebon, Joan Thompson and David Werner, drawings; Richard Parker, John Fago, Carolyn Watson, Tom Wells and David Werner, photography; Dyanne Ladine, art production; Martín Bustos and Richard Parker, photo production; Hal Lockwood and Helen Epperson of Bookman Productions, Tim Anderson and Linda Inman of Reprographex, typesetting and layout; and Trude Bock for giving so wholeheartedly of herself and her home for the preparation of this book. We want to give an extra word of thanks to Carol Thuman for coordination, typing, and correspondence and Janet Elliott for graphics, artwork, and paste-up, and to both for sharing the responsibility for the preparation and quality of this book. The main costs of preparing this book were met by grants from the Public Welfare Foundation, whose continued friendship and support of the Hesperian Foundation`s new publications is deeply appreciated. Additional funding was generously provided by the Gary Wang Memorial Fund, UNICEF, OXFAM UK, the Swedish International Development Agency, and MISEREOR. We would also like to thank the Thrasher Research Fund and Mulago Foundation for helping meet the costs of Project PROJIMO, from which this book evolved. For this third printing, we would like to thank Manisha Aryal for coordination; Martín Bustos for meticulous research; Susan McCallister for copy editing and careful proofreading; and Elena Metcalf for page layout and proofreading. Finally, we would like to thank David Werner for his careful and hard work in preparing this book. His vision and advocacy for disabled people around the world is reflected throughout the book. This book is divided into 3 parts. This is the longest part of the book, divided into 5 sections: Section A ( Chapters 2 to 5 ): ideas for sharing information from the book; and background information on working with disabled children Section E ( Chapters 42 and 43 ): on learning specific exercises; includes techniques for using crutches, canes, and wheelchairs ideas for starting a community program, and for helping the community respond to the needs of disabled children suggestions for setting up a workshop and for making aids, wheelchairs, braces, and rehabilitation equipment Usually the chapter that discusses a specific disability will not include all the information necessary to meet a child`s needs. You will also have to look in other chapters. There are several ways to find out where to look. As you read a chapter, often you will come to page references such as "(See Page 471 )." This means that you can turn to page 471 for more information on the topic being discussed. To find all the different places in the book that give important information about a specific disability or topic, use the INDEX. In some chapters, where further reading is essential, there is a list of references to other parts of the book at the end of the chapter. (See, for example, Page 75. ) It is very important that you learn how to look up these references, and do so. If you do not, the information to meet a child`s needs will not be complete. REMEMBER: The best way to learn how to use this book is to work for a while with the guidance of experienced rehabilitation workers. Homemade wheelchairs and wheel boards. Disabled Village Children is a book of information and ideas for all who are concerned about the well - being of disabled children. It is especially for those who live in rural areas where resources are limited. But it is also for therapists and professionals who assist community-based programs or who want to share knowledge and skills with families and concerned members of the community. Written by David Werner with the help of disabled persons and pioneers in rehabilitation in many countries, this book has been prepared in a style and spirit similar to the author`s earlier works, Where There Is No Doctor and Helping Health Workers Learn. It gives a wealth of clear, simple, but detailed information concerning most common disabilities of children: many different physical disabilities, blindness, deafness, fits, behavior problems, and developmental delay. It gives suggestions for simplified rehabilitation, low-cost aids, and ways to` help disabled children find a role and be accepted in the community. Above all, the book helps us to realize that most of the answers for meeting these children`s needs can be found within the community, the family, and in the children themselves. It discusses ways of starting small community rehabilitation centers and workshops run by disabled persons or the families of disabled children. Over 4,000 line drawings and 200, photos help make the information clear even to those with little formal education. 3. Community Health Aids - Handbooks, manuals, etc.

By Ed Butler BBC News, Malawi In some remote southern regions of Malawi, it`s traditional for girls to be made to have sex with a paid sex worker known as a "hyena" once they reach puberty. The act is not seen by village elders as rape, but as a form of ritual "cleansing". However, as Ed Butler reports, it has the potential to be the opposite of cleansing - a way of spreading disease. I meet Eric Aniva in the dusty yard of his three-room shack in Nsanje district in southern Malawi. Goats and chickens graze in the dirt outside. Wearing a grimy green shirt, and walking with a pronounced limp (he`s been lame in one leg since birth, he says), he greets me enthusiastically. He seems to like the idea of media attention. Aniva is by all accounts the pre-eminent "hyena" in this village. It`s a traditional title given to a man hired by communities in several remote parts of southern Malawi to provide what`s called sexual "cleansing". If a man dies, for example, his wife is required by tradition to sleep with Aniva before she can bury him. If a woman has an abortion, again sexual cleansing is required. And most shockingly, here in Nsanje, teenage girls, after their first menstruation, are made to have sex over a three-day period, to mark their passage from childhood to womanhood. If the girls refuse, it`s believed, disease or some fatal misfortune could befall their families or the village as a whole. "Most of those I have slept with are girls, school-going girls," Aniva tells me. "Some girls are just 12 or 13 years old, but I prefer them older. All these girls find pleasure in having me as their hyena. They actually are proud and tell other people that this man is a real man, he knows how to please a woman." Despite his boasts, several girls I meet in a nearby village express aversion to the ordeal they`ve had to go through. "There was nothing else I could have done. I had to do it for the sake of my parents," one girl, Maria, tells me. "If I`d refused, my family members could be attacked with diseases - even death - so I was scared." They tell me that all their female friends were made to have sex with a hyena. Stealing innocence in Malawi is broadcast on Assignment on BBC World Service on Thursday 21 July. Catch up online or download the podcast . Aniva appears to be in his 40s (he`s vague about his precise age) and currently has two wives who are well aware of his work. He claims to have slept with 104 women and girls - although as he said the same to a local newspaper in 2012, I sense that he long ago lost count. Aniva has five children that he knows about - he`s not sure how many of the women and girls he`s made pregnant. He tells me he`s one of 10 hyenas in this community, and that every village in Nsanje district has them. They are paid from $4 to $7 (£3 to £5) each time. An hour`s drive down the road, I`m introduced to Fagisi, Chrissie and Phelia, women in their 50s and custodians of the initiation traditions in their village. It`s their job to organise the adolescent girls into camps each year, teaching them about their duties as wives and how to please a man sexually. The "sexual cleansing" with the hyena is the final stage of this process, arranged voluntarily by the girl`s parents. It`s necessary, Fagisi, Chrissie and Phelia explain, "to avoid infection with their parents or the rest of the community". We have to train our girls in a good manner in the village, so that they don`t go astray, are good wives so that the husband is satisfied I put it to them that there`s a much greater risk that these "cleansings" will themselves spread disease. According to custom, sex with the hyena must never be protected with the use of condoms. But they say a hyena is hand-picked for his good morals, and therefore cannot be infected with HIV/Aids. It`s clear, given the hyena`s duties, that HIV is a huge risk to the community. The UN estimates that one in 10 of all Malawians carry the virus, so I ask Aniva if he is HIV-positive. He astounds me by saying that he is - and that he doesn`t mention this to a girl`s parents when they hire him. As our conversation continues, Aniva senses that I am not impressed. He stops boasting and tells me that he does fewer cleansings than before. "I still do the rituals here and there," he confides. Then he tells me: "I am stopping." All of those involved in these rituals are aware that these customs are condemned by outsiders - not just by the church, but by NGOs and the government as well, which has launched a campaign against so-called "harmful cultural practices". "We are not going to condemn these people," says Dr May Shaba, permanent secretary of the Ministry of Gender and Welfare. "But we are going to give them information that they need to change their rituals." I want this tradition to end - we are forced to sleep with the hyenas, it`s not out of our choice and that I think is so sad for us as women Parents who have had more education than others may already choose not to hire a hyena, I am told. But the female elders I spoke to remain defiant. "There`s nothing wrong with our culture," Chrissie tells me. "If you look at today`s society, you can see that girls are not responsible, so we have to train our girls in a good manner in the village, so that they don`t go astray, are good wives so that the husband is satisfied, and so that nothing bad happens to their families." According to Father Clause Boucher, a French-born Catholic priest who`s lived in Malawi for 50 years and is now its pre-eminent anthropologist, the rituals date back centuries. They stem from age-old beliefs about the need for children to be passed into the "heat" of adulthood by a sexual act, he says. In the past, when girls tended not to reach puberty until they were 15 or 16, this would often have been carried out by a selected future husband. Today it`s more likely to done by a paid sex worker, a hyena, and there`s no shame attached to that. Father Boucher points out that the efforts to change this sexualisation of children have been stubbornly resisted in remote southern areas, despite more than a century of Christianity and 30 years of the Aids epidemic. In most of the country - and particularly in areas close to the cities of Blantyre and Lilongwe - "sexual cleansing" is rarely if ever practised. In Malawi`s central Dedza district, hyenas are only ever used to initiate widows or infertile women, but the Paramount Chief Theresa Kachindamoto - a rare female figurehead in Malawi - has made the fight against the tradition a personal priority. She is trying to galvanise other regional chiefs to make similar efforts. In some other districts, like Mangochi in the east of the country, ceremonies are being adapted to replace sex with a more benign anointing of the girl. In Nsanje, though, there is little effort to bring about change. With Malawi one of the poorest countries in the world, and suffering from growing reports of rural hunger, it`s not a policy priority. Image caption From left to right: Aniva, Fanny with their youngest child, Fanny`s sister and a former client In a remote village, I meet one of Aniva`s two wives, Fanny, along with his youngest baby daughter. Fanny was herself widowed before being "cleansed" by Aniva with sex. They married soon after. Their relationship looks strained. Sitting next to him, she admits shyly that she hates what he does, but that it brings necessary income. I ask her if she expects her two-year-old to be undergoing initiation too in perhaps 10 years from now. "I don`t want that to happen," she says. "I want this tradition to end. We are forced to sleep with the hyenas. It`s not out of our choice and that I think is so sad for us as women." "You hated it when it happened to you?" I ask. When I ask Aniva too whether he wants his daughter to undergo sexual cleansing, he surprises me again. "So, you`re fighting against it, but you are still doing it yourself?" I ask. UPDATE: On 26 July Eric Aniva was arrested on the orders of Malawian president Peter Mutharika . Presidential spokesman Mgeme Kalilani said Aniva could be charged with defiling children, and exposing them to HIV. "Harmful cultural and traditional practices cannot be accepted in this country," Kalilani said in a statement. "All people involved in this malpractice should be held accountable for subjecting their children and women to this despicable evil."

It’s the one classroom where everyone’s paying attention at the back. Being a few feet away from a poisonous snake has a wonderful way of concentrating the mind. Six-year-old Rekha Bae – like all children in the 600-strong nomadic Vadi tribe in western India – will have first been introduced to cobras at the age of two. All Vadi children complete a ten-year initiation ritual that culminates in the boys becoming fully-fledged performing snake charmers. Divided between the sexes, the act of snake charming with traditional flute is the role of the men, while the Vadi women care for the snakes and handle them when their husbands or brothers are not around. `The training begins at two, the children then are then taught the ancient ways of snake charming until they are ready to take up their roles in our community,` said chief snake charmer Babanath Mithunath Madari, 60. `At twelve the children will know everything that they can know about snakes. Fearless: Girls like Meru Nath Madari, four, are taught to care for the snakes. Boys, meanwhile, learn to charm them with the traditional flute The nomadic Vadi tribe, which lives in the south of the Indian state of Gujarat take great pride in their association with the areas deadly snakes. Never staying in one place for more than six months, the Vadi have an almost mythical attachment to snakes and especially cobras. `At night, as we sit around our huts in the open desert and explain to the pact that our descendants made with Naga, the snake god,` Madari said. `We explain to the children how we only take a snake away from its natural habitat for a maximum of seven months. `Any more is disrespectful to the snake and especially after the charmer and snake have worked together so closely and so intimately. The cobras are fed a herbal mixture which Madari says renders the snake`s deadly poison useless. `We do not cut the fangs off the snakes as that would be cruel,` the tribal chief said. `We do not harm the them because they are like children to us. `In all my years with snakes, from my childhood to now, I have only heard of one man to have been bitten. Since snake charming was made illegal in 1991, the Vadi have come under huge pressure from the state and national governments of India. `The police routinely search us strip us of our snakes whenever we cross their paths,` Madari said. `We live 25km away from the town of Rajkot at the moment, and every time we try to enter the village for food or even bottle of water, the villagers chase us away. `This upsets me greatly because this village is the birthplace of the father of our nation Gandhi. `Would he stop us from continuing our traditions? The rich of India have no time for the poor.` The Vadi community`s settlement on the outskirts of Rajkot: Though snake-charming is banned, the tribe keep up the tradition