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Displays porn video on the camera

Displays porn video on the camera

An all-new seventh-generation Intel Core processor in every iMac. It’s more speed than iMac has ever reached before — taking the 27-inch model up to 4.2GHz, and the 21.5-inch model up to 3.6GHz. And Turbo Boost gives you even more power when you’re using processor-intensive applications like Logic Pro or Final Cut Pro. It all takes place behind the scenes, but you’ll see the difference in so many ways. Storage is about space. But it’s also about speed. A Fusion Drive gives you the best of both worlds. The apps and files you use the most are automatically stored on fast flash storage, while everything else moves to a high-capacity hard drive. From booting up to launching apps to importing photos, it’s faster and more efficient to do it all with Fusion Drive. And it’s now standard on all 27-inch models, and on the 21.5-inch model available at just $1499. VR makes its debut on iMac, with the ability to edit 360° video in apps like Final Cut Pro and create cutting-edge 3D VR content.6 Retina Display Retina at its most brilliant. The Retina display shines even more vividly on the new iMac. With one billion colors and 500 nits of brightness, graphics leap off the screen in a whole new light. And the pixel density is so high that you won’t detect a single one. Text is so clear and sharp, your email and documents will look smarter than ever. It’s simply the best Mac Retina display yet. The color you shoot is the color you see. The world is full of spectacular colors, and iMac brings more of them to your screen. The Retina display uses P3 color that shifts away from standard white LEDs to advanced red-green phosphor LEDs. So all three colors — red, green, and blue — are more equally represented and show off real-world color with more balance and precision. Double the speed and bandwidth of the previous generation. Two Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) ports come standard on all iMac models, each delivering up to 40Gb/s data transfer for external drives and cameras and twice the bandwidth for video and display connectivity. Four USB 3 ports give you plenty of options for connecting peripherals, including your printer, iPhone, thumb drive, and more. And with ultrafast three-stream Wi‑Fi and Bluetooth 4.2 wireless technology, you’re instantly connected to all your favorite content.

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Google Assistant-enabled touchscreens unveiled Monday at CES are made for your kitchen countertop and will compete against Amazon`s Echo Show. The Google Assistant-enabled Lenovo Smart Display is expected to go on sale early this summer with a starting price of $200. Chris Turkstra, director of Google Assistant, sat on a couch in a Renaissance hotel suite in Las Vegas on Sunday and started to chat with what was essentially your family`s old kitchen TV on steroids. On a side table to his right was the Lenovo Smart Display , more or less a Google Assistant-powered smart speaker with a built-in touchscreen. The gadget is one of four new smart displays -- made by Sony , Samsung-owned JBL, LG and Lenovo -- that Google and its partners unveiled Monday at the CES tech show in Las Vegas. The devices do everything you can do with a smart speaker, like play music and operate your connected lights, but they also let you make video calls, watch YouTube videos and look at photos, all using voice controls. "Our thinking is that over time, this is how people will interact with technology," Turkstra said of the voice-controlled device. You may have seen a gadget like these smart displays before, since Amazon unveiled a similar concept in the  Echo Show last May . With Google showing off a set of four additional smart display devices, a large segment of the tech industry is now betting that a lot of us want a touchscreen stationed at our kitchen counters and shared with the whole family to run our connected smart home gadgets and check calendars, directions and local restaurants. It`s a different vision of technology than the highly personalized and up close one we`re used to with phones and, despite all these companies` efforts, it`s hard to say if it will catch on. But, with the success of smart speakers, these companies see touchscreen displays as the next logical progression for voice computing, allowing customers to do more (and perhaps shop more) using their voice-controlled gadgets. "We worked with Google to go past just voice," said Carly Okerfelt, a senior product manager at Lenovo who sat by Turkstra. The new smart displays are important for Google`s business, too. Amazon is currently the leader in consumer voice devices, controlling about 70 percent of the US market thanks to is Alexa-controlled Echo devices. The Google Home speakers are a distant second. As smart speakers take on a central role in operating our smart-home devices, Google needs to gain more customers, and fast, to stop Amazon from taking over the new market. In an effort to catch up, Google already introduced the Google Home to compete with the Amazon Echo speaker, and followed up with the smaller Home Mini , which is similar to the Echo Dot . With the smart displays, Google will now have an even larger lineup of competing electronics. Google worked to ensure that consumers wouldn`t view smart displays as simply a tablet on a stand, and hopefully instead as an entirely new product category. While the devices may have a similar appearance to tablets , they don`t have a web browser or 4G LTE cellular connection and need to be plugged in at all times so their microphones can continually listen for the wake words "Hey Google" or "OK Google." The devices make up for those lost features by providing larger and better speakers than a tablet, improved connections to many smart home devices and an array of microphones to pick up your voice from across the room. Seshu Madhavapeddy, a Qualcomm vice president, said his company worked with Google to create two new chips for these devices to amp up these capabilities. Because these devices aren`t intended to be used up close for extended periods of time, Turkstra walked through a series of demos that showed the Lenovo Smart Display`s quickly digestible videos and images. For example, after he told the device, "Hey Google, good morning," the Smart Display turned on a light, and cycled through large images of the weather, directions and daily appointments. This information is personalized for each user, since Google Assistant can identify different voices. To help people discover more to do with their Google Assistant-powered products, Google said Monday it added a new directory of all the "actions" available using the assistant. Amazon provides a similar kind of directory in the Alexa mobile app. The JBL Link View smart display. In a nod to privacy concerns, Okerfelt said Lenovo added a mute switch to its device that cuts power to the microphones and a switch to physically block the Smart Display`s camera. The device is available with an 8-inch display for $200 or a 10-inch display for $250, and both are expected to be available early this summer. Along with Lenovo`s Smart Display, JBL unveiled the Link View , which has an 8-inch display. The device will be available in the summer in the US, but the company didn`t provide pricing information. Additional details about the Sony and LG devices aren`t yet available. The unveiling of the smart displays comes at a difficult time in Google and Amazon`s relationship. While the tech titans have worked together plenty of times in the past -- such as when Amazon integrated Google`s Nest devices with Alexa -- they are now in a public spat. Last month, Google said it would cut off access to YouTube on Amazon`s Fire TV video streamers and the Echo Show , saying it was unhappy Amazon removed its Chromecast devices from Amazon.com. Amazon soon after brought back Chromecasts to its online store, and Google said it was "in productive discussions" with Amazon to reach an agreement. Despite the timing, Gummi Hafsteinsson, product management director for Google Assistant, said the YouTube dustup with Amazon was unrelated to the smart displays` unveiling and "are separate issues." But, even with YouTube potentially returning to the Echo Show sometime this year, Amazon should face a lot more competition when these new smart displays go on sale in the coming months. CES 2018 : CNET`s complete coverage of tech`s biggest show. The Smartest Stuff : Innovators are thinking up new ways to make you, and the things around you, smarter.

There are three main 4K resolution standards: UHD-1, or ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV), is the 4K standard for television and computer monitors. UHD-1 is also called 2160p [5] [6] as it has a resolution of 3840 × 2160 ( 16:9 , or approximately a 1.78:1 aspect ratio), which is twice the horizontal and twice the vertical resolution of 1080p , or three times the horizontal and vertical resolution of 720p . [5] UHD-1 is used in consumer television and other media, e.g. video games. UW4K is the ultra-wide 4K standard, with a resolution of 3840 × 1600, and an aspect ratio of 12:5 (2.4:1, or 21.6:9) This resolution is most commonly used on Ultra HD Blu-ray discs, and PC gaming monitors. DCI 4K ("4K envelope") which has a resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (256:135, approximately a 1.9:1 aspect ratio ). This standard is only used in the film and video production industry. [7] The DCI 4K standard has twice the horizontal and twice the vertical resolution of DCI 2K. Many manufacturers may advertise their products as UHD 4K, or simply 4K, when the term 4K is traditionally reserved for the cinematic, DCI resolution. [6] [8] [9] This has the potential to cause confusion for consumers. [6] YouTube and the television industry have adopted UHD-1 as their 4K standard. [10] [11] As of 2014 [update] , 4K content from major broadcasters remains limited. [12] On April 11, 2013, Bulb TV created by Canadian serial entrepreneur Evan Kosiner became the first broadcaster to provide a 4K linear channel and VOD content to cable and satellite companies in North America. [13] [14] [15] [16] The channel is licensed by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission to provide educational content. [17] However, 4K content is becoming more widely available online including on YouTube, Netflix, and Amazon. [18] [19] By 2013, some UHDTV models were available to general consumers in the range of US$600. [20] [21] As of 2015 [update] , prices on smaller computer and television panels had dropped below US$400. [22] DVB expects UHD-1 Phase 2 services to be introduced by broadcasters from 2017, with features such as High Dynamic Range (using HLG and PQ at 10 or 12 bits), Wide Color Gamut ( BT. 2020 / 2100 colorimetry), and High Frame Rate (up to 120 Hz). [23] The first commercially available 4K camera for cinematographic purposes was the Dalsa Origin , released in 2003. [24] [25] YouTube began supporting 4K for video uploads in 2010 as a result of leading manufacturers producing 4K cameras. [26] Users could view 4K video by selecting "Original" from the quality settings until December 2013, when the 2160p option appeared in the quality menu. [27] In November 2013, YouTube started to use the VP9 video compression standard, saying that it was more suitable for 4K than High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC); VP9 is being developed by Google which owns YouTube. [26] The projection of movies at 4K resolution at cinemas began in 2011. [28] Sony was offering 4K projectors as early as 2004. [29] The first 4K home theater projector was released by Sony in 2012. [30] Sony is one of the leading studios promoting UHDTV content, as of 2013 [update] offering a little over 70 movie and television titles via digital download to a specialized player that stores and decodes the video. The large files (~40GB), distributed through consumer broadband connections, raise concerns about data caps. [31] In 2014, Netflix began streaming House of Cards , Breaking Bad , [32] and "some nature documentaries" at 4K to compatible televisions with an HEVC decoder. Most 4K televisions sold in 2013 did not natively support HEVC, with most major manufacturers announcing support in 2014. [33] Amazon Studios began shooting their full-length original series and new pilots with 4K resolution in 2014. [34] They are now currently available though Amazon Video . [35] In March 2016 the first players and discs for Ultra HD Blu-ray —a physical optical disc format supporting 4K resolution and HDR at 60 frames per second—were released. [36] In 2016, Sony and Microsoft released the PlayStation 4 Pro and Xbox One S , respectively, both of which are video game consoles that support 4K streaming and gaming, although in most cases the resolution is upscaled to 4K; the Xbox One S also features an Ultra HD Blu-ray disc drive. On November 7, 2017 Microsoft released the Xbox One X , which is capable of native 4K streaming and gaming. [37] This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia`s quality standards . You can help . The discussion page may contain suggestions. Though experiencing rapid price drops beginning in 2013 for viewing devices, the home cinema digital video projector market saw little expansion, with only a few manufacturers (only Sony as of 2015 [update] ) offering limited 4K-capable lineups, with native 4K projectors commanding five-figure price tags well into 2015 before finally breaking the US$10,000 barrier. [38] Critics state that at normal direct-view panel size and viewing distances, the extra pixels of 4K are redundant at the ability of normal human vision . Projection home cinemas, on the other hand, employ much larger screen sizes without necessarily increasing viewing distance to scale. JVC has used a technique known as "e-shift" to extrapolate extra pixels from 1080p sources to display 4K on screens through upscaling or from native 4K sources at a much lower price than native 4K projectors. [39] This technology of non-native 4K entered its fourth generation for 2016. [40] [41] [42] JVC used this same technology to provide 8K flight simulation for Boeing that met the limits of 20/25 visual acuity. [43] Pixel shifting as described here was pioneered in the consumer space by JVC , and later in the commercial space by Epson . That said, it isn`t the same thing as "true" 4K. More recently there are DLP projectors claiming 4K UHD (which the JVCs and Epsons do not even attempt to claim). As noted above, DCI 4K is 4096×2160, while UHD-1 4K is 3840×2160, producing a slight difference in aspect ratio rather than a significant difference in resolution. In traditional displays, such as LCD or OLED, there are 3840 pixels across the screen, with each pixel being 1/3840th of the screen width. They do not overlap; if they did, the detail would be reduced. The diameter of each is basically 1/3840th of the screen width or 1/2160th of the screen height - either gives the same size pixel. That 3840×2160 works out to 8.3 megapixels, the official resolution of 4K UHD (and therefore Blu-ray UHD discs). But the 4K UHD standard doesn`t specify how large the pixels are, so a 4K UHD projector (Optoma, BenQ, Dell, et al.) counts because these projectors have a 2718×1528 pixel structure. Those projectors process the true 4K of data and project it with overlapping pixels, which is what pixel shifting is all about. Unfortunately, each of those pixels is far larger: each one has 50% more area than true 4K. Those pixel shifting projectors project a pixel, shift it up to the right, by a half diameter, and project it again, with modified data, but that second pixel overlaps the first. In other words, pixel shifting is not capable of producing adjacent vertical lines of RGBRGB or any other colours where each line is one pixel (1/3840th of the screen) wide. Adjacent red and green pixels would end up looking like yellow, with a fringe on one side of red, on the other of green - except that the next line of pixels will be overlapping as well, changing the colour of that fringe. Simply stated, there is no way 4K UHD or 1080p pixel shifting can reveal the fine detail of a true 4K projector such as those Sony ships (business, education and home markets). Also, JVC has one true 4K projector priced at $35,000 (as of mid-2017). So while 4K UHD sounds like it was going to have pixel structures with 1/4 the area of 1080p, that`s just not going to happen with pixel shifting. Only a true 4K projector will offer that level of resolution. That should help explain why "true" 4K projectors cost so much more than 4K UHD projectors with otherwise similar feature sets. They produce smaller pixels, finer resolution, no compromising of detail or colour from overlapping pixels. By comparison, the slight difference in aspect ratio between DCI and 3840×2160 pixel displays without overlap is insignificant relative to the amount of detail that can be seen. In November 2014, United States satellite provider DirecTV became the first pay TV provider to offer access to 4K content, although limited to selected video-on-demand films. [44] In August 2015, British sports network BT Sport launched a 4K feed, with its first broadcast being the 2015 FA Community Shield football match. Two production units were used, producing the traditional broadcast in high-definition, and a separate 4K broadcast. As the network did not want to mix 4K footage with upconverted HD footage, this telecast did not feature traditional studio segments at pre-game or half-time, but those hosted from the stadium by the match commentators using a 4K camera. BT envisioned that if viewers wanted to watch studio analysis, they would switch to the HD broadcast and then back for the game. Footage was compressed using H.264 encoders and transmitted to BT Tower , where it was then transmitted back to BT Sport studios and decompressed for distribution, via 4K-compatible BT TV set-top boxes on an eligible BT Infinity internet plan with at least a 25 Mbit/s connection. [45] [46] In late 2015 and January 2016, three Canadian television providers – including Quebec -based Videotron , Ontario-based Rogers Cable , and Bell Fibe TV , announced that they would begin to offer 4K compatible set-top boxes that can stream 4K content to subscribers over gigabit internet service. [47] [48] On October 5, 2015, alongside the announcement of its 4K set-top box and gigabit internet, Canadian media conglomerate Rogers Communications announced that it planned to produce 101 sports telecasts in 4K in 2016 via its Sportsnet division, including all Toronto Blue Jays home games, and "marquee" National Hockey League games beginning in January 2016. Bell Media announced via its TSN division a slate of 4K telecasts to begin on January 20, 2016, including selected Toronto Raptors games and regional NHL games. [49] [50] [51] On January 14, 2016, in cooperation with BT Sport, Sportsnet broadcast the first ever NBA game produced in 4K – a Toronto Raptors / Orlando Magic game at O2 Arena in London , England . On January 20, also during a Raptors game, TSN presented the first live 4K telecast produced in North America. [47] [49] [52] Three days later, Sportsnet presented the first NHL game in 4K. [53] Dome Productions, a joint venture of Bell Media and Rogers Media (the respective owners of TSN and Sportsnet), constructed a "side-by-side" 4K mobile production unit shared by Sportsnet and TSN`s first 4K telecasts; it was designed to operate alongside a separate HD truck and utilize cameras capable of output in both formats. [54] For the opening game of the 2016 Toronto Blue Jays season , Dome constructed "Trillium" – a production truck integrating both 4K and 1080i high-definition units. [55] Bell Media`s CTV also broadcast the 2016 Juno Awards in 4K as the first awards show presented in the format. [56] In February 2016, Univision trialed 4K by producing a closed circuit telecast of a football friendly between the national teams of Mexico and Senegal from Miami in the format. The broadcast was streamed privately to several special viewing locations. Univision aimed to develop a 4K streaming app to publicly televise the final of Copa América Centenario in 4K. [57] [58] [59] In March 2016, DirecTV and CBS Sports announced that they would produce the "Amen Corner" supplemental coverage from the Masters golf tournament in 4K. [60] [61]

Keep your growing library organized and accessible. Perfect your images and create beautiful gifts for sharing. And with iCloud Photo Library, you can store a lifetime’s worth of photos and videos in the cloud. Tell stories like never before. A simple design and intuitive editing features make it easy to create beautiful 4K movies and Hollywood-style trailers. And with iMovie Theater, you can enjoy them on all your devices. The easiest way to create great-sounding songs on your Mac. With an intuitive interface and access to a complete sound library, it’s never been easier to learn, play, record, and share music like a pro. This powerful word processor gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. And read beautifully. It lets you work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices. And work effortlessly with people who use Microsoft Word. Create sophisticated spreadsheets with dramatic interactive charts, tables, and images that paint a revealing picture of your data. Work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices. And work effortlessly with people who use Microsoft Excel. Bring your ideas to life with beautiful presentations. Employ powerful tools and dazzling effects that keep your audience engaged. Work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices. And work effortlessly with people who use Microsoft PowerPoint. Safari has all kinds of innovative features that let you enjoy more of the web. Energy‑saving technologies let you surf longer. Built-in privacy is stronger than ever. You can browse seamlessly across all your devices. And it’s easy to share your favorite pages.

First developed in 1991, a webcam was pointed at the Trojan Room coffee pot in the Cambridge University Computer Science Department (initially operating over a local network instead of the web). The camera was finally switched off on August 22, 2001. The final image captured by the camera can still be viewed at its homepage. [11] [12] In 2004, the oldest webcam still operating was FogCam at San Francisco State University , which had been running continuously since 1994. [13] The first commercial webcam, the black-and-white QuickCam , entered the marketplace in 1994, created by the U.S. computer company Connectix (which sold its product line to Logitech in 1998). QuickCam was available in August 1994 for the Apple Macintosh , connecting via a serial port , at a cost of $100. Jon Garber, the designer of the device, had wanted to call it the "Mac-camera", but was overruled by Connectix`s marketing department; a version with a PC-compatible serial port and software for Microsoft Windows was launched in October 1995. The original QuickCam provided 320x240-pixel resolution with a grayscale depth of 16 shades at 60 frames per second, or 256 shades at 15 frames per second. [14] These cam were tested on several Delta II launch using a variety of communication protocols including CDMA, TDMA, GSM and HF. In 2010, Time Magazine named the QuickCam as one of the top computer devices of all time. [15] Videoconferencing via computers already existed, and at the time client-server based videoconferencing software such as CU-SeeMe had started to become popular. One of the most widely reported-on webcam sites was JenniCam , created in 1996, which allowed Internet users to observe the life of its namesake constantly, in the same vein as the reality TV series Big Brother , launched four years later. [16] Other cameras are mounted overlooking bridges, public squares, and other public places, their output made available on a public web page in accordance with the original concept of a "webcam". Aggregator websites have also been created, providing thousands of live video streams or up-to-date still pictures, allowing users to find live video streams based on location or other criteria. Around the turn of the 21st century, computer hardware manufacturers began building webcams directly into laptop and desktop screens, thus eliminating the need to use an external USB or FireWire camera. Gradually webcams came to be used more for telecommunications, or videotelephony , between two people, or among several people, than for offering a view on a Web page to an unknown public. For less than US$100 in 2012, a three-dimensional space webcam became available, producing videos and photos in 3D anaglyph image with a resolution up to 1280 × 480 pixels. Both sender and receiver of the images must use 3D glasses to see the effect of three dimensional image. [17] Webcams typically include a lens, an image sensor , support electronics, and may also include a microphone for sound. Various lenses are available, the most common in consumer-grade webcams being a plastic lens that can be screwed in and out to focus the camera. Fixed-focus lenses , which have no provision for adjustment, are also available. As a camera system`s depth of field is greater for small image formats and is greater for lenses with a large f-number (small aperture), the systems used in webcams have a sufficiently large depth of field that the use of a fixed-focus lens does not impact image sharpness to a great extent. Image sensors can be CMOS or CCD , the former being dominant for low-cost cameras, but CCD cameras do not necessarily outperform CMOS-based cameras in the low-price range. Most consumer webcams are capable of providing VGA -resolution video at a frame rate of 30 frames per second. Many newer devices can produce video in multi- megapixel resolutions, and a few can run at high frame rates such as the PlayStation Eye , which can produce 320×240 video at 120 frames per second. Support electronics read the image from the sensor and transmit it to the host computer. The camera pictured to the right, for example, uses a Sonix SN9C101 to transmit its image over USB . Typically, each frame is transmitted uncompressed in RGB or YUV or compressed as JPEG . Some cameras, such as mobile-phone cameras , use a CMOS sensor with supporting electronics "on die", i.e. the sensor and the support electronics are built on a single silicon chip to save space and manufacturing costs. Most webcams feature built-in microphones to make video calling and videoconferencing more convenient. The USB video device class (UVC) specification allows interconnectivity of webcams to computers without the need for proprietary device drivers. Microsoft Windows XP SP2, Linux [18] and Mac OS X (since October 2005) have UVC support built in and do not require extra device drivers, although they are often installed to add additional features. Many users do not wish the continuous exposure for which webcams were originally intended, but rather prefer privacy. [19] Such privacy is lost when malware allow malicious hackers to activate the webcam without the user`s knowledge, providing the hackers with a live video and audio feed. [20] This is a particular concern on many laptop computers, as such cameras normally cannot be physically disabled if hijacked by such a Trojan Horse program or other similar spyware programs. Cameras such as Apple `s older external iSight cameras include lens covers to thwart this. Some webcams have built-in hardwired LED indicators that light up whenever the camera is active, sometimes only in video mode[ citation needed ]. However, it is possible for malware to circumvent the indicator and activate the camera surrepticiously, as researchers demonstrated in case of a MacBook `s built-in camera in 2013. [21] Various companies sell sliding lens covers and stickers that allow users to retrofit a computer or smartphone to close access to the camera lens as needed. [21] One such company reported having sold more than 250,000 such items from 2013 to 2016. [21] Prominent users include former FBI director James Comey . [21] The fraudulent process of attempting to hack into a person`s webcam and activate it without the webcam owner`s permission has been called camfecting . The remotely activated webcam can be used to watch anything within the webcam`s field of vision, sometimes the webcam owner itself. Camfecting is most often carried out by infecting the victim`s computer with a virus that can provide the hacker access to the victim`s webcam. This attack is specifically targeted at the victim`s webcam, and hence the name camfecting, a portmanteau of the words cam and infecting. In January 2005, some search engine queries were published in an online forum [22] which allow anyone to find thousands of Panasonic - and Axis high-end web cameras, provided that they have a web-based interface for remote viewing. Many such cameras are running on default configuration, which does not require any password login or IP address verification, making them viewable by anyone. In the 2010 Robbins v. Lower Merion School District "WebcamGate" case, plaintiffs charged that two suburban Philadelphia high schools secretly spied on students - by surreptitiously remotely activating iSight webcams embedded in school-issued MacBook laptops the students were using at home — and thereby infringed on their privacy rights. School authorities admitted to secretly snapping over 66,000 photographs, including shots of students in the privacy of their bedrooms, including some with teenagers in various state of undress. [23] [24] The school board involved quickly disabled their laptop spyware program after parents filed lawsuits against the board and various individuals. [25] [26] Webcams allow for inexpensive, real-time video chat and webcasting , in both amateur and professional pursuits. They are frequently used in online dating and for online personal services offered mainly by women when camgirling . However, the ease of webcam use through the Internet for video chat has also caused issues. For example, moderation system of various video chat websites such as Omegle has been criticized as being ineffective, with sexual content still rampant. [27] In a 2013 case, the transmission of nude photos and videos via Omegle from a teenage girl to a schoolteacher resulted in a child pornography charge. [28] YouTube is a popular website hosting many videos made using webcams. News websites such as the BBC also produce professional live news videos using webcams rather than traditional cameras. [29] [ better source needed ] Webcams can also encourage telecommuting , enabling people to work from home via the Internet, rather than traveling to their office. The popularity of webcams among teenagers with Internet access has raised concern about the use of webcams for cyber-bullying . [30] Webcam recordings of teenagers, including underage teenagers, are frequently posted on popular Web forums and imageboards such as 4chan . [31] [32] Videophone calls (also: videocalls and video chat ), [33] differ from videoconferencing in that they expect to serve individuals, not groups. [34] However that distinction has become increasingly blurred with technology improvements such as increased bandwidth and sophisticated software clients that can allow for multiple parties on a call. In general everyday usage the term videoconferencing is now frequently used instead of videocall for point-to-point calls between two units. Both videophone calls and videoconferencing are also now commonly referred to as a video link. Webcams are popular, relatively low cost devices which can provide live video and audio streams via personal computers, and can be used with many software clients for both video calls and videoconferencing. [35] A videoconference system is generally higher cost than a videophone and deploys greater capabilities. A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) allows two or more locations to communicate via live, simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. This is often accomplished by the use of a multipoint control unit (a centralized distribution and call management system) or by a similar non-centralized multipoint capability embedded in each videoconferencing unit. Again, technology improvements have circumvented traditional definitions by allowing multiple party videoconferencing via web-based applications. [36] [37] A separate webpage article is devoted to videoconferencing . A telepresence system is a high-end videoconferencing system and service usually employed by enterprise-level corporate offices. Telepresence conference rooms use state-of-the art room designs, video cameras, displays, sound-systems and processors, coupled with high-to-very-high capacity bandwidth transmissions. Typical use of the various technologies described above include calling or conferencing on a one-on-one, one-to-many or many-to-many basis for personal, business, educational, deaf Video Relay Service and tele-medical, diagnostic and rehabilitative use or services. New services utilizing videocalling and videoconferencing, such as teachers and psychologists conducting online sessions, [38] personal videocalls to inmates incarcerated in penitentiaries , and videoconferencing to resolve airline engineering issues at maintenance facilities , are being created or evolving on an ongoing basis.

Copyright © 1990-2013 by DisplayMate Technologies Corporation. All Rights Reserved. A new generation of Smartphones with Full High Definition 1920x1080 displays have arrived, the same as your living room HDTV, but with a 5 inch screen size – that is very impressive! But, how good are these new displays, do you really need all of that sharpness and resolution, and will you be able to actually see the difference? Also, how do they compare with the Apple iPhone 5 and Samsung Galaxy S4? We’ll cover these issues and much more, with in-depth comprehensive display tests and analysis that you will find nowhere else. With the iPhone 4 Retina Display, Apple pioneered the previous generation of Smartphone displays in 2010. This time the pioneers are all Android devices, with the iPhone still not even at the basic HD resolution of 1280x720. But there are rumors of higher resolutions and larger Apple Smartphones on the way, possibly even in the Phablet size class – we’ll see… In this article we’ll examine three Flagship Full HD top-of-the-line Smartphones: the HTC One, Huawei Ascend D2, and the Sony Xperia Z, all with 5.0 inch or smaller screens. The LG Optimus G Pro has an excellent Full HD display that we have tested (for SID Information Display magazine), but it’s currently available only in a larger 5.5 inch size – a smaller 5.0 inch model is coming, which we plan on including when it becomes available. While Huawei is better known as a manufacturer of low cost Smartphones, their Ascend D2 is aimed at the premium top tier, and as you’ll see below, they managed to hit a home run with the display the first time at bat – that’s also very impressive! To examine the performance of these Flagship Full HD Smartphone displays we ran our in-depth series of Mobile Display Technology Shoot-Out Lab tests. We take display quality very seriously and provide in-depth objective analysis and side-by-side comparisons based on detailed laboratory measurements and extensive viewing tests with both test patterns and test images. To see how far Smartphones have progressed in just three years see our 2010 Smartphone Display Shoot-Out , and for a real history lesson see our original 2006 Smartphone Display Shoot-Out . In this Results section we provide Highlights of the comprehensive Lab tests, measurements, and extensive side-by-side visual comparisons using test photos, test images, and test patterns that are presented in later sections. The Comparison Table in the following section summarizes the lab measurements in the following categories:  Screen Reflections ,  Brightness and Contrast ,  Colors and Intensities ,  Viewing Angles ,  Display Power Consumption ,  Running Time on Battery . You can also skip these Highlights and go directly to the Conclusions . Can You Actually See the Enhanced Full HD Sharpness and Resolution? Apple started a major revolution in display marketing by introducing their “Retina Display” with 326 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) on the iPhone 4 in 2010. While not equivalent to the resolution of the human retina, people with 20/20 Vision cannot resolve the individual pixels when the display is held at normal viewing distances of 10.5 inches or more. This started a PPI and Mega Pixel war similar to what happened with Smartphone digital cameras, which is still an ongoing wild goose chase now into the stratosphere… Hopefully the same thing won’t happen with mobile displays. The real question is how high do we need to go before reaching a practical visual PPI limit? True Retina Displays: As I have pointed out before , the effective resolution of the human retina is much higher than Apple’s Retina Display, and corresponds to somewhere around 600 PPI at a 10 inch viewing distance, which is the limit for the best human vision, around 20/10. That is well above the highest 468 PPI display that we test here, so the Full HD higher resolution and sharpness should be visually apparent. On the other hand, very few people have that level of 20/10 visual acuity. In fact, a fair fraction of the adult population does not have corrected (near) vision even to 20/20. Furthermore, ambient light decreases visual acuity because the reflected light glare from the screen reduces image contrast – and Smartphones are almost never viewed in the dark. So perhaps the extra sharpness won’t be apparent for many situations, especially casual viewing… Enhanced Acuity: But if you want (or need) to take advantage of that extra display sharpness and resolution, you can. If you study and stare at the image on the screen, move it closer, or move it around, you’ll be able to make out considerably more fine image detail because you are building an integrated visual image map in the brain. So, when you are looking at an image with finely detailed graphics and small text, most people with reasonably good vision will be able to make out and appreciate the extra sharpness and image detail if they take the time to do so. Photos and Videos: Unlike computer generated text and graphics that have precise pixel arrangements, photographic images are inherently fuzzy because the image detail is spread over multiple pixels, so you are less likely to detect a sharpness difference over basic 1280x720 HD, especially with jpeg images, which are all digitally compressed. That’s for still photos, but movies and videos have images that are continually changing so a fair amount of image detail is often visually lost due to its transitory nature (plus digital compression). So for photos, movies and videos the extra sharpness and resolution will be less apparent… From the above discussion, there are lots of good and technically sound reasons for moving up to Full HD in a 5 inch Smartphone display. People with reasonably good vision will be able to see and appreciate the higher resolution, additional sharpness and image detail that it provides. In our Lab tests and measurements the three Smartphone displays, for the most part, delivered comparable and very good to excellent performance, including Brightness, Contrast Ratio (low ambient light), Contrast Rating for High Ambient Light, Reflectance, White Point, and Display Power Efficiency, which are analyzed in the Comparison Table . Below are a number of major issues where the displays performed very differently. In order to produce accurate image colors on-screen the displays need to match the Standard Color Gamut that is used to create virtually all current consumer content, which is named sRGB / Rec.709 (not the occasionally mentioned NTSC Gamut, which was defined in 1953 and has been obsolete for over 30 years). The Standard Gamut encompasses digital camera, HDTV, Internet, and computer content, including virtually all photos and videos. Note that standard consumer content does not include colors outside of the Standard sRGB / Rec.709 Gamut, so a display with a wider Color Gamut cannot show colors that are not in the original, and only produce inaccurate exaggerated on-screen colors. Most LCDs until recently delivered only 55 to 65 percent of the sRGB / Rec.709 Color Gamut, but many newer Smartphones are producing close to 100 percent of the Standard Gamut, including the HTC One and Huawei Ascend D2 tested here. However, the Sony Xperia Z has a somewhat too large Color Gamut of 115 percent, which contributes to its many problems with color accuracy. The image brightness, contrast, and colors can vary significantly when the screen Viewing Angle changes by even ±30 degrees, which is quite common for Smartphones because it depends on how you hold it in your hand (with varying pitch). The angle can be even larger if the Smartphone is resting on a table or desk. While all LCDs show large decreases in brightness with Viewing Angle (generally over 50 percent at ±30 degrees), it is now unusual for high-end LCDs with In Plane Switching (IPS) or similar technology to show substantial color and contrast shifts with Viewing Angle, which were shockingly large on the Sony Xperia Z. The problem is incredibly large increases in the background Black Level with small changes in Viewing Angle, which significantly washes out and degrades the image contrast and colors. This could be an LCD technology issue or possibly due to the use of a low grade polarizer in the panel. To double check this, we tested another similar model, the Xperia ZL, and it showed the same substantial degradation with Viewing Angle. On the other hand, both the HTC One and Huawei Ascend D2 have excellent viewing angle performance, with no visible color shifts. This Figure with screen shots illustrates the Viewing Angle performance for the three tested Smartphone displays. Measurement details are provided in the Viewing Angles Table below. Picture quality and Color Accuracy are especially important for these Full HD 5 inch displays because they are multimedia devices designed for viewing photos, videos, movies, HDTV and internet content. It takes careful display hardware design and careful factory calibration to produce top notch picture quality and color accuracy. Some manufacturers attempt to make their displays standout with image processing “enhancements” that exaggerate the colors and image contrast. The result is almost always distorted and over saturated colors and contrast. It is almost impossible to get the image processing “enhancements” to work well because of the incredible range and variety of images that can be displayed. The Huawei Ascend D2 avoids this sort of image processing and simply relies on standard accurate display calibration. Unfortunately, both the HTC One and Sony Xperia Z use excessive processing that results in distorted and over saturated colors and contrast. Not surprisingly, all three displays were extremely sharp, and had bright screens with good image contrast, but only at zero degrees Viewing Angle for the Sony Xperia Z, which has large color and image contrast shifts with Viewing Angle as described above. Where all three displays diverged significantly was in their Color Accuracy and Calibration due to excessive image and color processing, which some manufacturers do intentionally to try to make their displays stand out. But the end result almost always produces distorted and over saturated colors and contrast as described above. In our extensive Viewing Tests with a large set of challenging test photos and test images the three Smartphone displays were incredibly different as we compared them side-by-side to each other and to a number of accurate calibrated displays. The Huawei Ascend D2 delivered every bit as good picture quality and color accuracy as the iPhone 5 and Galaxy S4, but the HTC One had noticeably and significantly inaccurate, distorted and over saturated colors and contrast. The Sony Xperia Z was significantly worse with its “Bravia Engine” On – turning it Off improved its picture quality a lot, but not enough. It is surprisingly difficult to capture the magnitude of the differences seen live using camera screen shots. We’ve often used the following photo of a colorful barn door. This Figure with screen shots illustrates the differences in Viewing Test performance for the three Smartphone displays. When viewed live side-by-side the differences between the displays appear much greater. While it has an excellent LCD panel (made by Sharp), HTC has significantly degraded display performance by introducing unnecessary image and color processing in a poorly implemented attempt at making the display stand out. The result is distorted and over saturated colors and contrast. And unlike Sony, HTC does not provide an option to turn this processing off, which is a shame. Hopefully, such an option will become available in a future software upgrade. With the Ascend D2 Huawei appears to have taken the same successful solid approach for display performance as Apple. In our extensive side-by-side viewing test comparisons the Ascend D2 was virtually indistinguishable from the iPhone 5 and iPad Retina Display, two of the most accurate and high quality mobile displays we have ever tested. The Huawei Ascend D2 joins an elite group of Smartphones with world class displays. The performance of the Sony Xperia Z flagship top-of-the-line Smartphone can only be described as extremely disappointing. First of all, the Xperia Z has awful viewing angle performance, which is common for low-end low-technology displays, but is inexcusable in an expensive flagship top-of-the-line product. Second, the “Bravia Engine” that they brag enhances picture quality instead significantly degrades it, introducing extremely gaudy, oversaturated and distorted colors – similar to what you’ll see if you turn the Color Control on your HDTV all the way up to maximum. At least they provide an option to turn the Bravia Engine Off, which improves things a lot, but not enough. The Apple iPhone 5 is now more than half way through its product cycle, which is important to keep in mind for our comparison. However, the primary differences come down to its much smaller Screen Size (4.0 versus 4.7 to 5.0 inches), much lower Pixel Resolution (1136x640 versus 1920x1080), much lower total number of Pixels (0.7 versus 2.1 Mega Pixels), and much lower Pixels Per Inch (326 versus 443 to 468). On the plus side, the iPhone 5 has a much higher Peak Brightness (556 versus 421 to 491 cd/m2), a much lower Screen Reflectance (4.5 versus 5.6 to 6.5 percent), a much higher Contrast Rating for High Ambient Light (121 versus 65 to 88), and therefore much better screen visibility in high ambient light. All are major plus and minus differences. But the most interesting and significant development is that one of the Full HD Smartphones that we tested here, the Huawei Ascend D2, delivers every bit as good a picture quality and color accuracy as the iPhone 5 (but at a much higher resolution and screen size). In fact, in side-by-side viewing tests the two are almost indistinguishable because they both have accurately calibrated displays, which makes it a tie in picture quality, unlike the HTC One and Sony Xperia Z, which are one or two steps below. The Samsung Galaxy S4 is another important milestone display that we tested in a recent Shoot-Out article . Because OLED technology is significantly different from LCD technology there are many subtle performance issues that are examined in that article. The two most significant differences are: OLEDs provide perfect blacks but LCDs are currently significantly brighter. However, the Galaxy S4 has a much lower Screen Reflectance (4.4 versus 5.6 to 6.5 percent), and as a result, a somewhat higher Contrast Rating for High Ambient Light (65 to 108 versus 65 to 88). The Galaxy S4 also provides multiple Color Gamuts, including one that is very accurate, another for professional photography, and a larger one that is better in high ambient light. In terms of image sharpness, the Galaxy S4 also has Full HD 1920x1080 resolution – but there is one important difference, the LCD displays have 3 sub-pixels per pixel while the Galaxy S4 has a PenTile structure with only 2 sub-pixels per pixel. However, the very high 312 to 443 Sub-Pixels Per Inch together with its advanced sub-pixel rendering still results in a very visually sharp display. In the end, they each have their own particular strengths and weaknesses, so for the time being, it remains a tie between the high-end LCDs and OLEDs… It is amazing to hold a beautiful Full HD 1920x1080 mobile computer display and HDTV in the palm of your hand. But only one of the Smartphones tested here qualifies as a beautiful display – the Huawei Ascend D2, because it delivers superior picture quality with accurate colors and images. This Figure with screen shots illustrates the major points we make in the Conclusion with the measurement details in the Comparison Table below. With the Ascend D2 Huawei appears to have taken the same successful solid approach for display performance as Apple. In our extensive side-by-side viewing test comparisons the Ascend D2 was virtually indistinguishable from the iPhone 5 and iPad Retina Display, two of the most accurate and high quality mobile displays we have ever tested. The Huawei Ascend D2 joins an elite group of Smartphones with world class displays. While Huawei is better known as a manufacturer of low cost Smartphones, their Ascend D2 is aimed at the premium top tier, so they managed to hit a home run with the display the first time at bat. My suggestion for Huawei, please keep it up… I was expecting a lot better from the HTC One. While it has an excellent LCD panel (made by Sharp), HTC has significantly degraded display performance by introducing unnecessary image and color processing in a poorly implemented attempt at making the display stand out. The result is distorted and over saturated colors and contrast. And unlike Sony, HTC doesn’t provide an option to turn this processing off, which is a shame. Hopefully that will be an option in a future software upgrade. My suggestion for HTC, forget the display image processing tricks, which never work, and follow Apple and Huawei with solid and straightforward accurate display calibration… The performance of the Sony Xperia Z flagship top-of-the-line Smartphone can only be described as extremely disappointing – even shocking, given that Sony was once the best display manufacturer in the world, famous for their beautiful and accurate picture quality – something they brag about on their Xperia Z web page – but is very far from reality for the Xperia Z. First of all, the Xperia Z has awful viewing angle performance, which is common for low-end low-technology displays, but is inexcusable in an expensive flagship top-of-the-line product. Second, the “Bravia Engine” that they brag enhances picture quality instead significantly degrades it, introducing extremely gaudy, oversaturated and distorted colors – similar to what you’ll see if you turn the Color Control on your HDTV all the way up to maximum. At least they provide an option to turn the Bravia Engine Off, which improves things a lot, but not enough. My suggestion for Sony, retrain your display engineering and marketing teams in the tradition of the former grand Sony Style… The Next Generation of Smartphone Displays: These are the trends in Smartphone displays that we expect to see in the upcoming generation of displays. Smartphone cameras are still involved in an absurd Mega Pixel war, so I hope that both manufacturers and consumers can instead agree on sticking with Full HD 1920x1080 Smartphone displays for a while. There are lots of good reasons to do so: there is a tremendous amount of Full HD 1920x1080 content available. Displaying that content at its native resolution (without the need to rescale up or down) results in the best possible image quality, plus rescaling requires processing overhead that uses (wastes) precious battery power. Screen sizes have been creeping up for years because of the marketing push to higher display resolutions. If we can stick with the 1920x1080 resolution then the increases in Pixels Per Inch can instead be used to begin decreasing screen sizes. Both HTC and LG have already started on this approach by introducing newer models that are smaller. The HTC One is 4.7 inches with 468 PPI that follows a 5.0 inch 440 PPI model. A 500 PPI Full HD display will be 4.4 inches, which may appeal to consumers that feel 5.0 inches is too large. Better Picture Quality in High Ambient Light: All current displays perform poorly in ambient light because the reflected light glare progressively degrades the on-screen colors and image contrast. With improved sensors and color management, displays will be able to compensate for the effects of ambient light by dynamically changing the Color Gamuts and Intensity Scales to automatically correct for reflected glare and image wash out from ambient light. For those interested, I have an advanced article on this topic in the July/August 2013 issue of the SID Information Display magazine . All Smartphone and Tablets displays can be significantly improved using DisplayMate’s advanced scientific analysis and mathematical display modeling and optimization of the display hardware, factory calibration, and driver parameters. We help manufacturers with expert display procurement, optimization, and quality control so they don’t make mistakes similar to those that are exposed in our Display Technology Shoot-Out series. We can also improve the performance of any specified set of display parameters. This article is a lite version of our intensive in-depth scientific analysis – before the benefits of our DisplayMate Display Optimization Technology , which can correct or improve all of these issues. If you are a display or product manufacturer and want to significantly improve display performance for a competitive advantage then Contact DisplayMate Technologies .

Copyright © 1990-2013 by DisplayMate Technologies Corporation. All Rights Reserved. The Samsung Galaxy Note and Galaxy S Smartphones are flagship products for Samsung to show off its latest and greatest OLED display technology. The Galaxy Note 3 has the newest generation of OLED display technology. The Lab tests show that it is better than the Note II in every measurement category, and also comparable or better than the display on the Galaxy S4. It has double the resolution of the Note II, which is a major improvement, but the most impressive advancement for the Note 3 is its significantly brighter screen. We’ll cover these issues and much more, with in-depth comprehensive display tests, measurements and analysis that you will find nowhere else. While most mobile displays are still LCD based, OLEDs have been capturing a rapidly increasing share of the mobile display market. The technology is still very new, with the Google Nexus One Smartphone, launched in January 2010, as the first OLED display product that received widespread notoriety. In a span of just a few years this new display technology has improved at a very impressive rate, now challenging and even exceeding  the performance of the best LCDs. Virtually all of the OLED displays in current mobile devices are produced by Samsung Display. We have provided an in-depth analysis on the evolution of OLEDs in our Galaxy S I,II,III OLED Display Technology Shoot-Out and Galaxy S4 Display Technology Shoot-Out articles. Samsung provided DisplayMate Technologies with a pre-release production unit to test and analyze for this Display Technology Shoot-Out article. To examine the performance of the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 we ran our in-depth series of Mobile Display Technology Shoot-Out Lab tests and included the Galaxy Note II in order to determine how OLED displays have improved. We take display quality very seriously and provide in-depth objective analysis side-by-side comparisons based on detailed laboratory measurements and extensive viewing tests with both test patterns and test images. To see how far mobile displays have progressed in just three years see our 2010 Smartphone Display Shoot-Out , and for a real history lesson see our original 2006 Smartphone Display Shoot-Out . In this Results section we provide Highlights of the comprehensive Lab measurements and extensive side-by-side visual comparisons using test photos, test images and test patterns that are presented below. The Comparison Table section summarizes the Lab measurements in the following categories:  Screen Reflections ,  Brightness and Contrast ,  Colors and Intensities ,  Viewing Angles ,  OLED Spectra ,  Display Power . You can also skip the Highlights and go directly to the Conclusions . The Galaxy Note 3 has the newest generation of Samsung OLED displays since the Galaxy S4 Smartphone , which launched in April. The Lab tests below show that it is better than the Note II in every measurement category, and also comparable or better than the Galaxy S4. It has double the resolution of the Note II, which is a major improvement, but the most important advancement for the Note 3 is its significantly brighter screen… Up until the Galaxy Note 3, OLED displays have been somewhat to significantly dimmer than competing LCD displays. The Note 3 has changed that in a big way…it’s an impressive 55 percent brighter than the Note II and a solid 25 percent brighter than the Galaxy S4. For most image content it provides over 400 cd/m2, comparable or higher than most LCD displays in this size class. Even more impressive is that when Automatic Brightness is turned on, the Note 3 hits an incredible 660 cd/m2 in high ambient light, where it’s needed (85 percent brighter than the Note II and 40 percent brighter than the Galaxy S4 with Automatic Brightness) – the brightest mobile display we have ever tested in the Shoot-Out series. An impressive achievement for OLEDs! Most Smartphones and Tablets only provide a single fixed factory set display calibration, with no way for the user to alter it based on personal preference, the running application, or the ambient light level. An important capability provided by the more recent Galaxy Note and Galaxy S Smartphones is the inclusion of a number of Screen Modes that provide different levels of user selectable color saturation and display calibration based on user and application preferences. The Galaxy Note 3 has 5 user selectable Screen Modes: Adapt Display, Dynamic, Standard, Professional Photo, and Movie, which we discuss below and include measurements for several Modes. The Screen Modes require the implementation of Color Management to adjust the native Color Gamut of the display plus additional factory calibration for each Mode. The Note 3 Movie Mode delivers the most accurate Color and White Point calibration for the Standard sRGB/Rec.709 consumer content that is used for virtually all digital camera, HDTV, internet, and computer content, including photos and videos. Use the Movie Mode for the best color and image accuracy. The measured Absolute Color Accuracy for the Movie Mode is an excellent 3.1 JNCD. See this Figure for an explanation of JNCD. The Adapt Display Mode is the default mode for the Galaxy Note 3 – it provides adaptive image processing and delivers higher color saturation, which appeals to some, and is also a better choice for high ambient light viewing conditions, which wash out image colors and contrast. This mode is very similar to the Professional Photo Mode, but has a more bluish White Point. Compare the Color Gamuts in this Figure and below. Most high-end digital cameras have an option to use the Adobe RGB Gamut, which is 17 percent larger than the Standard sRGB/Rec.709 Gamut used in consumer cameras. The Professional Photo Mode on the Note 3 provides a fairly accurate calibration to the Adobe RGB standard, which is rarely available in consumers displays, and is very useful for high-end digital photography applications. The measured Absolute Color Accuracy of the Professional Photo Mode is 4.4 JNCD, which is Very Good. See this Figure for an explanation of JNCD. Mobile displays are often used under relatively bright ambient lighting, which washes out image colors and contrast, reducing picture quality and making it harder to read the screen. To be usable in high ambient light a display needs high screen Brightness and low screen Reflectance – the Note 3 has both. In fact, with Automatic Brightness turned on, the Note 3 has the highest Contrast Rating for High Ambient Light we have ever measured, which quantitatively measures screen visibility under bright ambient lighting – the higher the better. This article has screen shots that show how screen images degrade in High Ambient Lighting. On the Note 3 the Brightness can be set much higher for Automatic Brightness so that users can’t permanently set the Manual Brightness slider to very high values, which would run down the battery quickly. This extra high level of Brightness is only needed for high Ambient Light. In addition, the Adapt Display, Standard and Dynamic Modes also have much higher Color Saturation, which also improves screen visibility in high Ambient Light. While the Note 3 is primarily a single viewer device, the variation in display performance with viewing angle is still very important because single viewers frequently hold the display at a variety of viewing angles. The angle is often up to 30 degrees, more if it’s resting on a table or desk. While LCDs typically experience a 55 percent or greater decrease in brightness at a 30 degree Viewing Angle, the Note 3 shows a much smaller 22 percent decrease in brightness at 30 degrees. This also applies to multiple side-by-side viewers as well, and is a significant advantage for OLED displays. The Galaxy Note II (like the Galaxy S III) has a 1280x720 display. The Galaxy Note 3 (like the Galaxy S4) provides a full High Definition 1920x1080 display, with more than double the number of pixels – the same pixel resolution as your 50 inch living room HDTV – that’s very impressive! First of all, this is a benchmark spec with tremendous marketing power for driving consumer sales. But there are other important reasons for going to Full HD – there is a tremendous amount of 1920x1080 content available. Displaying that content at its native resolution (without the need to rescale up or down) results in the best possible image quality, plus rescaling requires processing overhead that uses (wastes) precious battery power. The Galaxy Note 3 has a pixel density of 388 Pixels Per Inch PPI, which is very high, but lower than the 441 PPI for the Galaxy S4 and other Full HD Smartphone displays. It’s important to recognize that this is not a decrease in visual image sharpness because the display still appears perfectly sharp for 20/20 Vision at typical viewing distances of 13 inches or more because the Pixels and Sub-Pixels are below normal visual acuity. (The Galaxy Note is 14 percent larger than the Galaxy S4 so it is typically held further away). The Galaxy Note 3 also has a PenTile Sub-Pixel arrangement like the Galaxy S4, with only 2 Sub-Pixels per Pixel instead of the usual 3. But at these very high PPIs, it’s not visually noticeable because of the use of Sub-Pixel Rendering and the Diamond Sub-Pixel arrangement discussed below. For more information on visual image sharpness see High PPI PenTile Displays and Visual Sharpness and Resolution . A high resolution screen shot of the Galaxy Note 3 (provided by Samsung) shows an interesting design and sub-pixel arrangement, which Samsung calls Diamond Pixels . First of all, the Red, Green, and Blue sub-pixels have very different sizes – Blue is by far the largest because it has the lowest efficiency, and Green is by far the smallest because it has the highest efficiency. The alternating Red and Blue sub-pixel PenTile arrangement discussed above leads to a 45 degree diagonal symmetry in the sub-pixel layout. Then, in order to maximize the sub-pixel packing and achieve the highest possible PPI, that leads to diamond rather than square or stripe shaped Red and Blue sub-pixels. But not for the Green sub-pixels, which are oval shaped because they are squeezed between two much larger and different sized Red and Blue sub-pixels. It’s display art… We measured an impressive 26 percent improvement in power efficiency between the Galaxy Note 3 and Note II. While LCDs remain more power efficient for images with mostly white content (like text screens, for example), OLEDs are more efficient for darker content because they are emissive rather than transmissive like LCDs. In fact, the Galaxy Note 3 is 31 percent more power efficient than the Full HD LCD Smartphones we recently tested for mixed image content (that includes photos and videos, for example) with a 50 percent Average Picture Level, APL. One subtle but important advantage of OLEDs is their excellent screen uniformity compared to LCDs, which often show hot spots and shadows from edge LED lighting. The Galaxy Note 3 Movie Mode provides very nice, pleasing, and accurate colors and picture quality. The Movie Mode is recommended for indoor and low ambient light viewing. The Adapt Display and Standard Modes have significantly more vibrant and saturated colors. Some people like that. They are recommended for medium levels of ambient light viewing because it offsets some of the reflected glare that washes out the images. The Dynamic Mode provides incredibly powerful colors that are overwhelming in low ambient lighting. The Dynamic Mode is recommended for high ambient light viewing, for some games and cartoons, and possibly for persons with visual impairments. The Galaxy Note 3 display is a major enhancement and improvement over the Galaxy Note II – a good reason to consider trading up. The Full HD 1920x1080 display on the Galaxy Note 3 has more than double the number of pixels and is noticeably sharper then the lower resolution HD 1280x720 display on the Note II, particularly with text and graphics. But the most striking difference is the 55 percent brighter display on the Note 3 (and 85 percent brighter with Automatic Brightness). Consistent with the differences in their Color Gamuts and Intensity Scales, the Movie Mode was slightly more vivid on the Note 3 and the Standard Mode slightly more vivid on the Note II. The Galaxy Note 3 continues the rapid and impressive improvement in OLED displays and technology. The first notable OLED Smartphone, the Google Nexus One, came in decidedly last place in our 2010 Smartphone Display Shoot-Out . In a span of just a few years OLED display technology is now challenging and even exceeding the performance of the best LCDs across the board in brightness, contrast, color accuracy, color management, picture quality, screen uniformity, and viewing angles. OLEDs are also considerably thinner than LCDs but still cost considerably more to manufacture. The Galaxy Note 3 has the newest generation of OLED display technology. The Lab tests show that it is better than the Note II in every measurement category, and also comparable or better than the display on the Galaxy S4. It has double the resolution of the Note II, which is a major improvement, but the most impressive advancement for the Note 3 is its significantly brighter screen, which hits an incredible 660 cd/m2 in high ambient light, the brightest mobile display we have ever tested in the Shoot-Out series. An impressive achievement for OLEDs! OLEDs need to continue improving their power efficiency, which is critically important for mobile displays. We measured an impressive 26 percent improvement in power efficiency between the Galaxy Note 3 and Note II. While LCDs remain more power efficient for images with mostly white content (like text screens, for example), OLEDs are more efficient for darker content because they are emissive rather than transmissive like LCDs. In fact, Galaxy Note 3 is already 31 percent more power efficient than the Full HD LCD Smartphones we recently tested for mixed image content (that includes photos and videos, for example) with a 50 percent Average Picture Level, APL. If this keeps up then OLEDs may pull ahead of LCDs in total power efficiency in the near future… What’s Next… The most important developments for the upcoming generations of both OLED and LCD mobile displays will come from improvements in their image and picture quality in ambient light, which washes out screen images, resulting in reduced readability, image contrast, and color saturation and accuracy. The key will be in dynamically changing the display’s color management and intensity scales in order to automatically compensate for reflected glare and image wash out from ambient light. See this article on display performance in ambient light . The displays and technologies that succeed in implementing this new strategy will take the lead in the next generations of mobile displays… All Smartphone and Tablets displays can be significantly improved using DisplayMate’s advanced scientific analysis and mathematical display modeling and optimization of the display hardware, factory calibration, and driver parameters. We help manufacturers with expert display procurement, prototype development, and production quality control so they don’t make mistakes similar to those that are exposed in our Display Technology Shoot-Out series. We can also improve the performance of any specified set of display parameters. This article is a lite version of our intensive scientific analysis – before the benefits of our DisplayMate Display Optimization Technology , which can correct or improve all of these issues. If you are a display or product manufacturer and want to significantly improve display performance for a competitive advantage then Contact DisplayMate Technologies . Below we compare the display on the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 with the Galaxy Note II based on objective Lab measurement data and criteria. For additional background and information see the Galaxy S4 Display Technology Shoot-Out that compares the Galaxy S4 with the iPhone 5, and the Galaxy SI,II,III Display Technology Shoot-Out that compares and analyzes the evolution of the OLED displays on the Galaxy S I, II, and III.