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How are people with disabilities

How are people with disabilities

How are people with disabilities

Definition edit Normalization involves the acceptance of some people with disabilities, with their disabilities, offering them the same conditions as are offered to other citizens. It involves an awareness of the normal rhythm of life including the normal rhythm of a day, a week, a year, and the lifecycle itself (e.g., celebration of holidays workday and weekends). It involves the normal conditions of life housing, schooling, employment, exercise, recreation and freedom of choice previously denied to individuals with severe, profound, or significant disabilities. 3Wolfensbergers definition is based on a concept of cultural normativeness: Utilization of a means which are as culturally normative as possible, in order to establish andor maintain personal behaviors and characteristics that are as culturally normative as possible. Thus, for example, medical procedures such as shock treatment or restraints, are not just punitive, but also not culturally normative in society. His principle is based upon social and physical integration, which later became popularized, implemented and studied in services as community integration encompassing areas from work to recreation and living arrangement. 4Theoretical foundations edit This theory includes the dignity of risk , rather than an emphasis on protection 5 and is based upon the concept of integration in community life. The theory is one of the first to examine comprehensively both the individual and the service systems, similar to theories of human ecology which were competitive in the same period.The theory undergirds the deinstitutionalization and community integration movements, and forms the legal basis for affirming rights to education, work, community living, medical care and citizenship. In addition, selfdetermination theory could not develop without this conceptual academic base to build upon and critique. 6The theory of social role valorization is closely related to the principle of normalization 7 having been developed with normalization as a foundation. 8 This theory retains most aspects of normalization concentrating on socially valued roles and means, in socially valued contexts to achieve integration and other core quality of life values.History edit The principle of normalization was developed in Scandinavia during the sixties and articulated by Bengt Nirje of the Swedish Association for Retarded Children with the US human service system a product of Wolf Wolfensberger formulation of normalization and evaluations of the early 1970s. 9 10 According to the history taught in the 1970s, although the exact origins are not clear, the names BankMikkelson (who moved the principle to Danish law), Grunewald, and Nirje from Scandinavia (later Ministry of Community and Social Services in Toronto, Canada) are associated with early work on this principle. Wolfensberger is credited with authoring the first textbook as a wellknown scholar, leader, and scientist and Rutherford H. (Rud) Turnbull III reports that integration principles are incorporated in US laws.Academe edit The principle was developed and taught at the university level and in field education during the seventies, especially by Wolf Wolfensberger of the United States, one of the first clinical psychologists in the field of mental retardation, through the support of Canada and the National Institute on Mental Retardation (NIMR) and Syracuse University in New York State. 11 PASS and PASSING marked the quantification of service evaluations based on normalization, and in 1991 a report was issued on the quality of institutional and community programs in the US and Canada based on a sample of 213 programs in the US, Canada and the United Kingdom. 12Significance in structuring service systems edit Normalization has had a significant effect on the way services for people with disabilities have been structured throughout the UK, Europe, especially Scandinavia, North America, Israel, Australasia (e.g., New Zealand) and increasingly, other parts of the world. It has led to a new conceptualisation of disability as not simply being a medical issue (the medical model which saw the person as indistinguishable from the disorder, though Wolfensberger continued to use the term into the 2000s, 13 but as a social situation as described in social role valorization .Government reports began from the 1970s to reflect this changing view of disability (Wolfensberger uses the term devalued people), e.g. the NSW AntiDiscrimination Board report of 1981 made recommendations on the rights of people with intellectual handicaps to receive appropriate services, to assert their rights to independent living so far as this is possible, and to pursue the principle of normalization. The New York State Quality of Care Commission also recommended education based upon principles of normalization and social role valorization addressing deepseated negative beliefs of and about people with disabilities. 14 Wolfensbergers work was part of a major systems reform in the US and Europe of how individuals with disabilities whould be served, resulting in the growth in community services in support of homes, families and community living. 15 16Critical ideology of human services edit Normalization is often described in articles and education texts that reflect deinstitutionalization, family care or community living as the ideology of human services. 17 18 Its roots are EuropeanAmerican, and as discussed in education fields in the 1990s, reflect a traditional gender relationshipposition (Racino, 2000), among similar diversity critiques of the period (i.e., multiculturalism). 19 Normalization has undergone extensive reviews and critiques, thus increasing its stature through the decades often equating it with school mainstreaming, life success and normalization,and deinstitutionalization. 20 21 22 23In contemporary society edit This section is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editors personal feelings about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style .(April 2015)( Learn how and when to remove this template message )In the United States, large public institutions housing adults with developmental disabilities began to be phased out as a primary means of delivering services in the early 1970s and the statistics have been documented until the present day (2015) by David Braddock and his colleagues. 24 As early as the late 1960s, the normalization principle was described to change the pattern of residential services, as exposes occurred in the US and reform initiatives began in Europe. These proposed changes were described in the leading text by the Presidents Committee on Mental Retardation (PCMR) titled: Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded with leaders Burton Blatt, Wolf Wolfensberger, Bengt Nirje, BankMikkelson, Jack Tizard, Seymour Sarason, Gunnar Dybwad, Karl Gruenwald, Robert Kugel, and lesser known colleagues Earl Butterfield, Robert E. Cooke, David Norris, H. Michael Klaber, and Lloyd Dunn. 25Deinstitutionalization and community development edit The impetus for this mass deinstitutionalization was typically complaints of systematic abuse of the patients by staff and others responsible for the care and treatment of this traditionally vulnerable population with media and political exposes and hearings. 26 These complaints, accompanied by judicial oversight and legislative reform, resulted in major changes in the education of personnel and the development of principles for conversion models from institutions to communities, known later as the community paradigms. 27 28 In many states the recent process of deinstitutionalization has taken 1015 years due to a lack of community supports in place to assist individuals in achieving the greatest degree of independence and community integration as possible. Yet, many early recommendations from 1969 still hold such as financial aid to keep children at home, establishment of foster care services, leisure and recreation, and opportunities for adults to leave home and attain employment (BankMikkelsen, p.234236, in Kugel Wolfensberger, 1969). 29Community supports and community integration edit A significant obstacle in developing community supports has been ignorance and resistance on the part of typically developed community members who have been taught by contemporary culture that those people are somehow fundamentally different and flawed and it is in everyones best interest if they are removed from society (this developing out of 19th Century ideas about health, morality, and contagion). Part of the normalization process has been returning people to the community and supporting them in attaining as normal as life as possible, but another part has been broadening the category of normal (sometimes taught as regular in community integration, or below as typical) to include all human beings. In part, the word normal continues to be used in contrast to abnormal, a term also for differentness or out of the norm or accepted routine (e.g., middle class). 30 31Contemporary services and workforces edit In 2015, public views and attitudes continue to be critical both because personnel are sought from the broader society for fields such as mental health 32 and contemporary community services continue to include models such as the international emblem of the group home for individuals with significant disabilities moving to the community. 33 Today, the US direct support workforce, associated with the University of Minnesota, School of Education, Institute on Community Integration 34 can trace its roots to a normalization base which reflected their own education and training at the next generation levels.People with disabilities are not to be viewed as sick, ill, abnormal, subhuman, or unformed, but as people who require significant supports in certain (but not all) areas of their life from daily routines in the home to participation in local community life. 35 With this comes an understanding that all people require supports at certain times or in certain areas of their life, but that most people acquire these supports informally or through socially acceptable avenues. The key issue of support typically comes down to productivity and selfsufficiency, two values that are central to societys definition of selfworth. If we as a society were able to broaden this concept of selfworth perhaps fewer people would be labeled as disabled.Personal wounds, quality of life and social role valorization edit However, the perspective of Wolfensberger, who served as associated faculty with the Rehabiltation Research and Training Center on Community Integration (despite concerns of federal funds), is that people he has known in institutions have suffered deep wounds. This view, reflected in his early overheads of PASS ratings, is similar to other literature that has reflected the need for hope in situations where aspirations and expectations for quality of life had previously been very low (e.g., brain injury, independent living ). Normalization advocates were among the first to develop models of residential services, and to support contemporary practices in recognizing families and supporting employment. 36 Wolfensberger himself found the new term social role valorization 37 to better convey his theories (and his German Professorial temperament, family life and beliefs)than the constant misunderstandings of the term normalization!Related theories and development edit Related theories on integration in the subsequent decades have been termed community integration , selfdetermination or empowerment theory, support and empowerment paradigms, community building, functionalcompetency, family support, often not independent living (supportive living),and in 2015, the principle of inclusion which also has roots in service fields in the 1980s.Misconceptions edit Normalization is so common in the fields of disability, especially intellectual and developmental disabilities, that articles will critique normalization without ever referencing one of three international leaders: Wolfensberger, Nirje, and Bank Mikkelson or any of the women educators (e.g., Wolfensbergers Susan Thomas Syracuse University colleagues Taylor, Biklen or Bogdan established women academics (e.g., Sari Biklen) or emerging women academics, Traustadottir, Shoultz or Racino in national research and education centers (e.g., Hillyer, 1993). 38 Thus it is important to discuss common misconceptions about the principle of normalization and its implications among the provideracademic sectors:a) Normalization does not mean making people normal forcing them to conform to societal norms.Wolfensberger himself, in 1980, suggested Normalizing measures can be offered in some circumstances, and imposed in others. 39 This view is not accepted by most people in the field, including Nirje. Advocates emphasize that the environment, not the person, is what is normalized, or as known for decades a personenvironment interaction.Normalization is very complex theoretically, and Wolf Wolfensbergers educators explain his positions such as the conservatism corollary, deviancy unmaking, the developmental model (see below) and social competency, and relevance of social imagery, among others. 40b) Normalization does not support dumping people into the community or into schools without support.Normalization has been blamed for the closure of services (such as institutions) leading to a lack of support for children and adults with disabilities. Indeed, normalization personnel are often affiliated with human rights groups. Normalization is not deinstitutionalization, though institutions have been found to not pass in service evaluations and to be the subject of exposes. Normalization was described early as alternative special education by leaders of the deinstitutionalization movement. 41However support services which facilitate normal life opportunities for people with disabilities such as special education services, housing support, employment support and advocacy are not incompatible with normalization, although some particular services (such as special schools) may actually detract from rather than enhance normal living bearing in mind the concept of normal rhythms of life. citation needed c) Normalization supports community integration , but the principles vary significantly on matters such as gender and disability with community integration directly tackling services in the context of race, ethnicity, class, income and gender.Some misconceptions and confusions about normalization are removed by understanding a context for this principle. There has been a general belief that special people are best served if society keeps them apart, puts them together with their own kind, and keep them occupied. The principle of normalization is intended to refute this idea, rather than to deal with subtlety around the question of what is normal? The principle of normalization is congruent in many of its features with community integration and as been described by educators as supporting early mainstreaming in community life. 42d) Normalization supports adult services by age range, not mental age, and appropriate services across the lifespan.Arguments about choice and individuality, in connection with normalization, should also take into account whether society, perhaps through paid support staff, has encouraged them into certain behaviours. For example, in referring to normalization, a discussion about an adults choice to carry a doll with them must be influenced by a recognition that they have previously been encouraged in childish behaviours, and that society currently expects them to behave childishly. Most people who find normalization to be a useful principle would hope to find a middle way in this case, an adults interest in dolls being valued, but with them being actively encouraged to express it in an ageappropriate way (e.g., viewing museums and doll collections), with awareness of gender in toy selection (e.g., see cars and motorsports), and discouraged from behaving childishly and thus accorded the rights and routines only of a perpetual child. However, the principle of normalization is intended also to refer to the means by which a person is supported, so that (in this example) any encouragement or discouragement offered in a patronising or directive manner is itself seen to be inappropriate. citation needed e) Normalization is a set of values, and early on (1970s)was validated through quantitative measures (PASS, PASSING).Normalization principles were designed to be measured and ranked on all aspects through the development of measures related to homes, facilities, programs, location (i.e. community development), service activities, and life routines, among others. These service evaluations have been used for training community services personnel, both in institutions and in the community. 43 44 45 46Normalization as the basis for education of community personnel in Great Britain is reflected in a 1990s reader, highlighting Wolf Wolfensbergers moral concerns as a Christian, right activist, sidebyside (How to Function with Personal Model Coherency in a Dysfunctional (Human Service) World) with the common form of normalization training for evaluations of programs. 47 Community educators and leaders in Great Britain and the US of different political persuasions include John OBrien and Connie Lyle OBrien, Paul Williams and Alan Tyne, Guy Caruso and Joe Osborn, Jim Mansell and Linda Ward, among many others. 48References edit The basis and logic of the normalisatioprinciple, Bengt Nirje, Sixth International Congress of IASSMD, Toronto, 1982 Wolfensberger, W. Glenn, L. (1973). Program Analysis of Service Systems (PASS): A Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Human Services. Vol. 1. Handbook. Volume II. Field Manual. Downsview, Toronto, Canada: National Institute on Mental Retardation. Nirje, Bengt as cited in S. Cohen C. Gothelf. (1988). A Preservice Trining Curriculum for Administrators for CommunityBased Residential Programs Service People with Developmental Disabilities. NY, NY: City University of New York, Hunter College. Orientation Manual on Mental Retardation, Pt. 1. Downsview, Ontario: National Institute on Mental Retardation, Kinsmen NIMR Building, pp. 4150. Misconceptions on the principle of normalisation, BankMikkelsen, Address to IASSMD Conference, Washington, D.C., 1976. Allard, M., Howard, A., Vorderer, L. Wells, A. (1999). Ahead of His Time: Selected Speeches of Gunnar Dybwad. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. Nirje, B. (1985). The basis and logic of the normalization principle. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 11(2): 6568. Wolfensberger, W. (1983). Social role valorization: A proposed new term for the principle of normalization. Mental Retardation, 21, 2349. The normalisation principle and its human management implications, in R. Kugel W. Wolfensberger (Eds.) Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded, Washington, D.C: Presidents Committee on Mental Retardation, 1969. Wolfensberger, W. (1972). The Principle of Normalization in Human Services. Toronto, Canada: National Institute on Mental Retardation. Wolfensberger, W. (1972). The Principle of Normalization in Human Services Toronto, Canada: National Institute on Mental Retardation. Flynn, R. J., LaPointe, N., Wolfensberger, W. Thomas, S. (1991, July 19). Quality of Institutional and Community Human Service Programs in Canada and the United States. Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 16(3): 146153. Wolfensberger, W. Associates. (2001). The 19th Century Moral Treatment Approach to Human Services, Especially to the Treatment of Mental Disorder, and Lessons for Services for Our Own Day. Syracuse, NY: Training Institute for Human Services Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry. Cashen, J. (1989, NovDec). The need for valueenhancement training and informal support systems. Quality of Care, Issue 42: 13. Flynn, R.J. Nitsch, K.E. (1980). Normalization, Social Integration and Community Services. (pp. 117129). Baltimore, MD Paul H. Brookes. Taylor, S. Bogdan, R. Racino, J. (1991). Life in the Community: Case Studies of Organizations Supporting People with Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Landesman, S. Butterfield, E. (1987, August). Normalization and deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded individuals: Controversy and facts. American Psychologist, 42: 809816. Bruininks, R.H. Lakin, K.C. (1985). Living and Learning in the Least Restrictive Environment. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Racino, J. (2000). Personnel Preparation in Disability: Toward Universal Approaches to Support. Binghamton, NY: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. Zipperlin, H. (1975). Normalization. In: J. Wortis (Ed.), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, VII. NY, NY: Brumer Mazel Publishers. Chappell, A. (1992). Towards a sociological critique of normalisation principle. Disability, Handicap and Society, 7(1): 3551. Lippman, L. (1977). Normalization and related concepts: Words and ambiguities. Child Welfare, 56(5): 301310. Phillips, M.J. (1992). Try Harder: The experience of disability and dilemmas of normalization. aina ap. Ferguson, D. Ferguson, S. Taylor (Eds), Interpreting Disability: A Qualitative Reader. NY London: Teachers College, Columbia University. Braddock, D., Hemp, R., Fujiura, G., Bachelder, L., Mitchell, D. (1990). The State of the States in Developmental Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Kugel, R.H. Wolfensberger, W. (1969). Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded. Washington, DC: Presidents Committee on Mental Retardation Blatt, B. Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory: A Photographic Essay on Mental Retardation. Syracuse, NY: Human Policy Press. Racino, J. (1999). Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support For All. London: Haworth Press. Blatt, B., Bogdan, R., Biklen, D. Taylor, S. (1977). From institution to community A conversion model Educational programming for the severelyprofoundly handicapped. In: E. Sontag, J. Smith, N. Certo (Eds)., Educational Programming for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped (pp. 4052). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. BankMikkelsen, N. (1969). Ch. 10: A metropolitan area in Denmark, Copenhagen. In: R.B. Kugel W. Wolfensberger, Changing Patterns of Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded (now Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2015). Washington, DC: Presidents Committee on Mental Retardation. Traustadottir, R. (1995). A mothers work is never done: Constructing a normal family life. In: S. Taylor, R. Bogdan Z.M. Lutfiyya, The Variety of Community Experiences: Qualitative Studies of Family and Community Life. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Racino, J. Rogan, P. (1990). RCESPE 636: Community Services and Systems Change: Syllabi. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation, School of Education. Anthony, W., Cohen, M., Farkas, M. Gagne, C. (2002). Psychiatric Rehabilitation. Boston, MA: Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation. Johnson, K. Traustadottir, R. (2005). Deinstitutionalization and People with Intellectual Disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Larson, S., Sedlezky, L., Hewitt, A. Blakeway, C. (201214). US direct support workforce. In: J. Racino, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor. Walker, P. Rogan, P. (2007). Making the Day Matter: Promoting Typical Lifestyles for Adults with Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Wolfensberger, W., Thomas, S., Caruso, G. (1996). Because of the universal good things in life which the implementation of social role valorization can be expected to make more accessible to devalued people. International Social Role Valorization Journal, 2: 1214. Wolfensberger, W. (1985). Social role valorization: A new inight, and a new term, for normalization. Australian Association for the Mentally Retarded Journal, 9(1): 411. Hillyer, B. (1993). Feminism and Disability. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma. The definition of normalisation: update, problems, disagreements and misunderstandings, Wolfensberger, W. (1980) In R.J. Flynn K.E. Nitsch (Eds). Normalization, social integration and human services. Baltimore: University Park Press Wolfensberger, W. Tullman, S. (1982). A brief outline of the principle of normalization. Rehabilitation Psychology, 27(3): 131145. Wolfensberger, W. (1977). The principle of normalization. In: B. Blatt, D. Biklen, R. Bogdan, An Alternative Textbook in Special Education: People, Schools and Other Institutions. Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co. Yates, J. (1979). The Principle of Normalization, Guidelines for Tours, and Guidelines for Administrative Inquiries. Syracuse, NY: Training Institute on Human Services Planning and Change Agentry. Wolfensberger, W. Glenn, L. (1975). PASS 3: A Method for Quantitative Evaluation of the Human Services Field. Toronto, Canada: National Institute on Mental Retardation. Wolfensberger, W. Thomas, S. (1983). PASSING: Program Analysis of Service Systems Implementation of Normalization Goals. Toronto, Canada: National Institute on Mental Retardation. Flynn, R.J. Heal, L.W. (1981). A short form of PASS 3: A study of its structure, interrater reliability, and validity for assessing normalization. Evaluation Review, 5(3): 357376. Demaine, G.C., Silverstein, A.B. Mayeda, T. (1980, June). Validation of PASS 3: A first step in service evaluation through environmental assessments. Mental Retardation, 18: 131134. Lindley, P. Wainwright, T. (1992). Normalisation training: Conversion or commitment? In: H. Brown H. Smith (Eds), Normalisation: A Reader for the Nineties. London: TavistockRoutledge. Williams, P. Tyne, A. (1988). Exploring values as the base for service development. In: D. Towell (Ed.), An Ordinary Life in Practice: Developing Comprehensive CommunityBased Services for People with Learning Disabilities. (pp. 2331). London: King Edwards Hospital Fund.Further reading edit The Principle of Normalization: History and Experiences in Scandinavian Countries, Kent Ericsson. Presentation ILSMH Congress, Hamburg 1985.Setting the record straight: a critique of some frequent misconceptions of the normalization principle, Perrin, B. Nirje, B., Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 1985, Vol 11, No. 2, 6972.A comprehensive review of research conducted with the program evaluation instruments PASS and PASSING. (1999). In: R. Flynn R. LeMay, A Quarter Century of Normalization and Social Role Valorization: Evolution and Impact. (pp.317349). Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa Press.The social origins of normalisation by Simon Whitehead in the reader Normalisation from Europe by Hillary Brown and Helen Smith (1992, Routledge). Foreword by Linda Ward. Reader includes references to Wolfensberger, John OBrien (Citizen advocacy, Frameworks for accomplishment), Syracuse University Training Institute (European PASS workshops), Australian Training and Evaluation for Change Association, and Great Britains Community and Mental Handicap Educational and Research Associates, among others.Presentations edit New York State Office of Mental Health. (1980). Normalisation Excerpt from 1973 Orientation Manual on Mental Retardation. Goals of Community Residence Workshop. Albany, NY: Author.Nirge, B. (1990, April 23). Lecture: Recent Developments in Community Services in Sweden. Syracuse, NY: Sponsored by Syracuse University, Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation, and the Center on Human Policy.Wolfensberger, W. Associates. (2001). The Signs of the Times and their Implications to Human Services and Devalued People. Syracuse, NY: Training Institute for Human Service Planning and Change Agentry, Syracuse University. Held at the site of the former Syracuse Developmental Center.Wolfensberger, W. (2000). Half Day Presentation on Social Role Valorization. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Training Institute on Human Services Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry.Wolfensberger, W. (2000). A Critical Examination of the Current Concept of Rights in the Contemporary Human Services Advocacy Culture. Syracuse, NY: Training Institute on Human Services Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry, Syracuse University.Wolfensberger, W. (2000). The Most Common Wounds of Societally Devalued People with an Emphasis on Threats to, Attacks Upon, Their Lives. Syracuse, NY: Training Institute on Human Services Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry, Syracuse University.Wolfesnberger, W. (2000). DeeplyEmbedded Concepts About What We Call Mental Retardation as Expressed Throughout History in Visual Iconography Language Implications for Our Day. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Training Institute on Human Services Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry.Syllabi: course readings edit Wolfensberger, W. (1979). Readings for Universal Issues and Principles in Human Services. (pp.16). Syracuse, NY: Training Institute for Human Service Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry.Wolfensberger, W. (1979). Overheads on PASS, Integration and Normalization. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, School of Education.Assessment reports edit Wolfensberger, W. Associates. (1985, April). Passing Assessment Reports Available for Training and Demonstration Purposes. Syracuse, NY: Training Institute for Human Service Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry.Wolfensberger, W. (1989, February). Overview of PASSING, A New NormalizationSocial Role ValorizationBased Human Service Evaluation Tool: Assumptions, Purposes, Structure, Intended Uses (Revised). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Training Institute on Human Services Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry.Historical references edit Nirje, B. (1969). Chapter 7: The normalisation principle and its human management implications. Kugel, R. Wolfensberger, W. (Eds.), Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded. Washington, DC: Presidents Committee on Mental Retardation.Nirje, B. (1970). The Normalization Principle: Implications and comments. Symposium on Normalization. Midland Society for the Study of Abnormality, 16(6270).Wolfensberger, W. (1970). The principle of normalization and its implications to psychiatric services. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127:3, 291297.Wolfesnberger, W. (1973). The future of residential services for the mentally retarded. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2(1): 1920.Wolfensberger, W. (1975). The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models. Syracuse, NY: Human Policy Press.Wolfensberger, W. (1976). Will there always be an institution? The impact of epidemiological trends. (pp.399414). In: M. Rosen, G.R. Clark, M.S. Hivitz, The History of Mental Retardation: Collected Papers: Volume 2. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Wolfensberger, W. (1983). Social role valorization: A proposed new term for the principle of normalization. Mental Retardation (now Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities), 21(6): 234239.

Mayors Office for People With Disabilities Mayors Office for People with DisabilitiesMayors Office for People with DisabilitiesThe Mayors Office for People with Disabilities (MOPD) was created in 1993 by city ordinance, three years after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).View 2016 Disability Awareness Month Kickoff videoSeptember 30: Houston Parks and Recreation Department (HPARD) reopensMetropolitan MultiService Center. HPARD dedicates the green room in honorof the late Jay Stiteley, former manager of MOPD. DON and community partnerskick off 2016 Disability Awareness Month.MOPD MissionThe mission of the Mayors Office for People with Disabilities (MOPD) is to serve as the primary advocate for the rights and needs of citizens with disabilities. The Office also serves as a liaison between the mayor, city council, city departments and other public and private entities on matters pertaining to people with disabilities in Houston. MOPDs vision is a city where everyone understands the importance of equal participation and full inclusion of all citizens, including citizens with disabilities.We accomplish this mission by providing and participating in programs and services which address the needs and rights of citizens with disabilities, including:Facilitating delivery of services including city servicesActing as liaison to Houston Commission on Disabilities (HCoD), City Council and other City DepartmentsMaking recommendations to public and private entities regarding the development of policy and legislationEstablishing fundamental local, state and national partnerships to promote community awarenessAdministering, developing new, and participating in programs and services according to our missionAbout MOPD: In Other Languages

Basic physical mobility, Domestic life, and Selfcare (for example, activities of daily living )Interpersonal interactions and relationshipsCommunity, social and civic life, including employmentOther major life areasIn concert with disability scholars, the introduction to the ICF states that a variety of conceptual models has been proposed to understand and explain disability and functioning, which it seeks to integrate. These models include the following:Main article: Medical model of disabilityThe medical model views disability as a problem of the person, directly caused by disease, trauma, or other health conditions which therefore requires sustained medical care in the form of individual treatment by professionals. In the medical model, management of the disability is aimed at a cure, or the individuals adjustment and behavioral change that would lead to an almostcure or effective cure. In the medical model, medical care is viewed as the main issue, and at the political level, the principal response is that of modifying or reforming healthcare policy. 34 35Main article: Social model of disabilityThe social model of disability sees disability as a socially created problem and a matter of the full integration of individuals into society . In this model, disability is not an attribute of an individual, but rather a complex collection of conditions, created by the social environment. The management of the problem requires social action and it is the collective responsibility of society to create a society in which limitations for disabled people are minimal. Disability is both cultural and ideological in creation. According to the social model, equal access for someone with an impairmentdisability is a human rights concern. 36 35 The social model of disability has come under criticism. While recognizing the importance played by the social model in stressing the responsibility of society, scholars, including Tom Shakespeare , point out the limits of the model, and urge the need for a new model that will overcome the medical vs. social dichotomy. 37Some say medical humanities is a fruitful field where the gap between the medical and the social model of disability might be bridged. 38Social construction edit The social construction of disability is the idea that disability is constructed by social expectations and institutions rather than biological differences. Highlighting the ways society and institutions construct disability is one of the main focuses of this idea. 39 In the same way that race and gender are not biologically fixed, neither is disability.Around the early 1970s, sociologists, notably Eliot Friedson, began to argue that labeling theory and social deviance could be applied to disability studies. This led to the creation of the social construction of disability theory. The social construction of disability is the idea that disability is constructed as the social response to a deviance from the norm. The medical industry is the creator of the ill and disabled social role. Medical professionals and institutions, who wield expertise over health, have the ability to define health and physical and mental norms. When an individual has a feature that creates an impairment, restriction, or limitation from reaching the social definition of health, the individual is labeled as disabled. Under this idea, disability is not defined by the physical features of the body but by a deviance from the social convention of health. 40Social construction of disability would argue that the medical model of disability s view that a disability is an impairment, restriction, or limitation is wrong. Instead what is seen as a disability is just a difference in the individual from what is considered normal in society. 41Other models edit The spectrum model refers to the range of audibility, sensibility, and visibility under which people function. The model asserts that disability does not necessarily mean reduced spectrum of operations. Rather, disability is often defined according to thresholds set on a continuum of disability. 42The moral model refers to the attitude that people are morally responsible for their own disability. 43 For example, disability may be seen as a result of bad actions of parents if congenital , or as a result of practicing witchcraft if not. 44 Echoes of this can be seen in the doctrine of karma in Indian religions. It also includes notions that a disability gives a person special abilities to perceive, reflect, transcend, be spiritual. 45The expertprofessional model has provided a traditional response to disability issues and can be seen as an offshoot of the medical model. Within its framework, professionals follow a process of identifying the impairment and its limitations (using the medical model), and taking the necessary action to improve the position of the disabled person. This has tended to produce a system in which an authoritarian, overactive service provider prescribes and acts for a passive client. 46The tragedycharity model depicts disabled people as victims of circumstance who are deserving of pity . This, along with the medical model, are the models most used by nondisabled people to define and explain disability. 47The legitimacy model views disability as a valuebased determination about which explanations for the atypical are legitimate for membership in the disability category. This viewpoint allows for multiple explanations and models to be considered as purposive and viable. 48The social adapted model states although a persons disability poses some limitations in an ablebodied society, often the surrounding society and environment are more limiting than the disability itself. 49The economic model defines disability in terms of reduced ability to work, the related loss of productivity and economic effects on the individual, employer and society in general. 50The empowering model (also, customer model) allows for the person with a disability and hisher family to decide the course of hisher treatment. This turns the professional into a service provider whose role is to offer guidance and carry out the clients decisions. This model empowers the individual to pursue hisher own goals. 49The market model of disability is minority rights and consumerist model of disability that recognizing disabled people and their stakeholders as representing a large group of consumers, employees and voters. This model looks to personal identity to define disability and empowers people to chart their own destiny in everyday life, with a particular focus on economic empowerment. By this model, based on US Census data, there are 1.2 billion people in the world who consider themselves to have a disability. This model states that, due to the size of the demographic, companies and governments will serve the desires, pushed by demand as the message becomes prevalent in the cultural mainstream. 35The consumer model of disability is based upon the rightsbased model and claims that disabled people should have equal rights and access to products, goods and services offered by businesses. The consumer model extends the rightsbased model by proposing that businesses, not only accommodate customers with disabilities under the requirements of legislation, but that businesses actively seek, market to, welcome and fully engage disabled people in all aspects of business service activities. The model suggests that all business operations, for example websites, policies and procedures, mission statements, emergency plans, programs and services, should integrate access and inclusion practices. Furthermore, these access and inclusion practices should be based on established customer service access and inclusion standards that embrace and support the active engagement of people of all abilities in business offerings. 51Different theories revolve around prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination, and stigma related to disability. One of the more popular ones, as put by Weiner, Perry, and Magnusson s (1988) work with attribution theory, physical stigmas are perceived as to be uncontrollable and elicit pity and desire to help, whereas, mentalbehavioral stigmas are considered to be controllable and therefore elicit anger and desire to neglect the individuals with disabilities. 52The just world hypothesis talks about how a person is viewed as deserving the disability. And because it is the fault of that person, an observer does not feel obligated to feel bad for him or to help him. 53Identity edit In contexts where their differences are visible, persons with disabilities often face stigma. People frequently react to disabled presence with fear, pity, patronization, intrusive gazes, revulsion, or disregard. These reactions can, and often do, exclude persons with disabilities from accessing social spaces along with the benefits and resources these spaces provide. 54 Disabled writerresearcher Jenny Morris describes how stigma functions to marginalize persons with disabilities: 55Going out in public so often takes courage. How many of us find that we cant dredge up the strength to do it day after day, week after week, year after year, a lifetime of rejection and revulsion? It is not only physical limitations that restrict us to our homes and those whom we know. It is the knowledge that each entry into the public world will be dominated by stares, by condescension, by pity and by hostility.Additionally, facing stigma can cause harm to psychoemotional wellbeing of the person being stigmatized. One of the ways in which the psychoemotional health of persons with disabilities is adversely affected is through the internalization of the oppression they experience, which can lead to feeling that they are weak, crazy, worthless, or any number of other negative attributes that may be associated with their conditions. Internalization of oppression damages the selfesteem of the person affected and shapes their behaviors in ways that are compliant with nondisabled dominance. 54 Ableist ideas are frequently internalized when disabled people are pressured by the people and institutions around them to hide and downplay their disabled difference, or, pass. According to writer Simi Linton, the act of passing takes a deep emotional toll by causing disabled individuals to experience loss of community, anxiety and selfdoubt. 56 The media play a significant role in creating and reinforcing stigma associated with disability. Media portrayals of disability usually cast disabled presence as necessarily marginal within society at large. These portrayals simultaneously reflect and influence popular perception of disabled difference.

Meeting Agendas MinutesWho We AreThe Seattle Commission for People with disAbilities is a 16 member body of sincere and energetic volunteers who strive to use their collective capabilities and contributions to make a demonstrable improvement to the City of Seattle. Seven commissioners are appointed by the Mayor and seven appointments are made by the City Council. The Commission appoints the 15th member. Commissioners are appointed to a two year term of office and serve without pay. A 16th member joins the Commission each year through Get Engaged , a leadership development program for 1829 year olds.

People with disabilitiesRationaleIt is estimated that there are more than 600 million people with disability in the world (WHO). This represents between 18 and 20 of the worlds population. When the impact on families and carers is also considered, approximately 25 of the worlds population is affected by disability.. There is a strong correlation of impairment and ageing, hence it is estimated that the incidence of disability will rise as the babyboomer generation age.In addition, improvements in the quality of life for people with chronic illness and disability as well as advances in medicine are prolonging life in the face of previously life threatening situations and raising the incidence of disability particularly in industrialised countries. For example many babies born prematurely now survive often with significant disability. People are more likely to survive serious accidents and then live with head injury, spinal cord injuries or other impairments.In the majority of the nonindustrialised world, the incidence of disability is particularly high. War, famine, disasters all contribute to injury, impairment and disability. Land mines account for vast numbers of people with disability chiefly in Africa and Asia. The correlation of disability and poverty is well known and indeed constitutes a major focus for many international projects (Braithwaite, Carroll, Mont Peffley, 2008). Many people with disability in the developing world live on less than US1 per day. disabled people are also more likely than other people to live in grinding poverty. More than 1.3 billion people worldwide struggle to exist on less than US1 a day, and the disabled in their countries live at the bottom of the pile. James D. Wolfensohn, former president of the World Bank, 2002The human rights of people with a disability were first identified as a priority in the 1970s with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Mentally Retarded in 1975. Efforts to bring issues for people with a disability on global scale have continued with the most recent Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability being passed in December 2006. This instrument has had a major impact. The CRPD provides clear directions and guidelines for legislative change, policy development and implementation for those governments and states ratifying the convention and Optional Protocol.Social workers work with individuals with a disability, with families who have a child or family member with a disability as well as with communities both domestically and internationally. Our work in these spheres encompasses, direct practice, group work, community development, policy practice, research and advocacy. Social workers have played key roles in the development of antidiscrimination legislation, policies that support persons with disability and the development of disability programs. Social workers work alongside people with disabilities and families to realise social inclusion, community living, employment, family support, and rehabilitation. A policy statement on persons with disability therefore is a key platform for IFSW.BackgroundThe World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are around 600 million persons with disabilities. Other estimates are at 650 million. These cover many types and degrees of impairments. The day to day life of around 25 per cent of the worlds population is affected by disability. There is a strong correlation of impairment and ageing, hence it is estimated that the incidence of disability will rise as the babyboomer generation age. In the majority world the correlation of poverty and disability is well known.The history of how people with disabilities are treated is marked by marginalisation, discrimination, profound exclusion, and ultimate extermination. Throughout the industrialised world people with disabilities have experienced marginalisation, segregation, stigma and social exclusion. In the developing world attitudes to disability vary according to social norms, religious beliefs and cultural values. Some impairments are not viewed negatively in some cultures for example. However, most people with disability have been viewed in stigmatised ways.Historically, people with disabilities were placed in large institutions where they remained cut off from family, isolated from society and subjected to often brutal treatment. Following a medical model of disability, people with disabilities were typically regarded as objects to be fixed by medical treatment, as objects of charity to be rendered welfare or as a burden of care. Many of these values are still prevalent today.The advent of the disability rights and community living movements in the latter part of the 20th century brought about a number of changes whereby people with disabilities started to be regarded as active and participating members of society. However, it is still the case that most people with disabilities are still disadvantaged socially, economically, educationally and vocationally.DefinitionsDisability is a contested concept and definitions have varied over history and according to social norms. There is considerable debate as to what is disability and who are the disabled. Later models of disability distinguished between the various components of disability and for the first time differentiated between the objective impairment, the resulting level of functioning (disability) and the social components that handicap the individual. Impairments can be physical, sensory and cognitive and also include physical, mental and chronic illness. The social model of disability emphasises the perspective that disability is created through structural barriers and is thus created by society while individual, medical models have viewed disability as something inherent in the person.The CRPD states:Disability is an evolving concept, and that disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. Disability thus results from an interaction between a noninclusive society and individuals.Persons using a wheelchair might have difficulties gaining employment not because of the wheelchair, but because there are environmental barriers such as inaccessible buses or staircases which impede access, as well as attitudinal barriers that discriminate against people with disabilities and hinder their full participation in society.Human rights and people with disabilityThe rights of people with disability have been an ongoing issue both in terms of international legislative initiatives as well as through disability rights movements. Most important of international instruments and events are:the UN Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons (1971),the Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons in 1975,the International Year for Disabled Persons in 1981,World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons (UN, 1982), andthe United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons (19831992).Culmination of all these is the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of 2006, which has now been signed by more than 144 countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries a number of industrialized countries made laws to minimize the discrimination of people with disability (to guarantee the rights of people with disability) . Alongside this legislation there has been a concerted effort to improve the lived experiences of people with disabilities. This has resulted in policies that aim to reduce institutional care and in its place promote community living. There have been many questions and issues around community living. While espoused as an ideal, its implementation has not necessarily delivered quality outcomes for all people with disabilities.PovertyThroughout the world, the links between poverty and disability are well documented and deeply concerning, though this is particularly stark in the developing world. It is estimated that approximately 80 per cent of the worlds persons with disabilities live in lowincome countries the majority are poor and cannot access basic services. Only 2 per cent of children with disability in the developing world receive any education or rehabilitation. It is a special need, that the interests and needs of children with disabilities should be addressed in the work of all ministries and other responsible bodies. Social workers have to consider that there is a feminization of poverty especially women with disabilities, who are marginalized within an already marginalized group. Of women in poverty those with disabilities are frequently the poorest.EducationThe education of children with disabilities has been absent or minimal in some contexts and often involves segregated settings in many countries. Thus the social exclusion of children begins at an early stage with children being placed in parallel education systems. Later this is reflected by low numbers of persons with disabilities achieving tertiary education thus denying them many employment opportunities.EmploymentIn the industrialized world, poverty is directly related to the low rates of employment for people with disability. For example, 17 per cent of Europes general population and about 15 per cent of the working population suffer from a disability or chronic illness. People with disabilities are reported to have twice the rate for nonparticipation in the labour market as compared to persons without disabilities. The unemployment rate for persons with a severe disability is about three times the level for persons without disabilities. Workers with disability typically receive a lower wage than others. Often people with disabilities need a specially modified working environment but employers are not willing to undertake such modification. This is a form of attitudinal discrimination so often experienced by people with disability.People with intellectual disabilityPeople with intellectual disabilities constitute a significant number of disabled persons. They have particular issues in that they are often more vulnerable to exploitation and victimisation. People with intellectual disability experience health inequalities compared with the general population. Although their life expectancy is increasing it remains much lower than the rest of the population. Additionally people with intellectual disabilities have higher level of health needs than others which are often unrecognised and experience barriers in accessing health and social services. People with intellectual disabilities are often placed in psychiatric hospitals which are inappropriate to their needs. There is now debate around the rights and legal capacity of people with intellectual or cognitive impairments and how can they best be protected while maintaining human dignity and worth and self determination.FamiliesMany families are the key support for children with disabilities and for adults requiring supports especially adults with intellectual disabilities and higher support needs. Family support services are vital for these families and require services from specially trained social workers.People with emotional impairmentsIndividuals identified as having an emotional impairment manifest problems primarily in the affective domain. Often persons with an emotional impairment especially children cannot profit from learning experiences without additional education support.They are unable to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships in school or in the work place. What are seen as inappropriate behaviours, lead to misunderstanding in schools at home and at the work place. In Germany children with emotional impairments are often sent to an educationally subnormal school.Disability across the life spanThe needs of persons with disability change over the life span from children through to young adulthood to adulthood and ageing. Programs and services need to reflect those changes. Early intervention is crucial for all aspects for disability programs and services. Women with disabilities experience deeper discrimination as witnessed by even lower rates for employment than men with disabilities and higher rates of abuse and violence.SummaryThere has been a greater recognition of the rights of people with disabilities and their rightful inclusion in society and community. However, social exclusion still exists on many levels often implicitly in social attitudes and values. Social inclusion has become a major international agenda and this must incorporate the input and participation of persons with disability of all ages and all world communities.Policy PositionSocial workers are strategically positioned to develop, implement, and advocate for policies, programmes, services, and research that support and benefit persons with a disability. Acknowledging that people with disability comprise a significant proportion of the worlds population, IFSW encourages the consideration of people with disabilities in all of its policies. IFSW also supports the following policy principles that promote the inclusion of all people with disabilities in all societies and communities.IFSW endorses the CRPD and encourages all countries to sign the convention and the optional protocolIFSW stresses and affirms the core commitment of the social work profession to human rights for people with disabilities including the elimination of physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, exploitation, and neglect,IFSW supports the full participation of people with disabilities in the design, implementation, and evaluation of disability programmes, policies, and research.IFSW supports the self determination of people with disabilities in all aspects of their livesIFSW will work to promote the full inclusion of all people with disabilities, including people with physical, psychological, and cognitive disabilities, in all aspects of society including education, paid employment, community living, political participation, as well as cultural, and social activities.IFSW will work to ensure that people with disability receive proper health and mental health care, primary and acute care, including effective medications and sexual health care rehabilitative services and assistive technology psychotherapy and substance abuse treatment palliative and hospice careIFSW supports the introduction, preservation, and strengthening of a range of public, private, and commercial income security schemes that safeguard adequate income to meet needs of people with disabilities especially women.IFSW recognised the need to promote and expand disability education and training for all social workers and other health, mental health, and service providers.IFSW strongly supports the full participation of persons with disability in the profession, in social work education, social policy and social agencies.IFSW affirms that education of social workers should equip them to work alongside people with disability, families and the environment. Social workers should have the skills to recognize that every disabled person has her his own individuality and has the freedom to make their own choice. practice, policy, research, and advocacy.ReferencesBraithwaite, J, Carroll, R., Mont, D. Peffley, K. (2008). Disability Development in the World Bank: FY20002007 SP Discussion Paper 0808. World Bank Publication.Hoogeveen, J. (2005).Measuring Welfare for Small but Vulnerable Groups: Poverty and Disability in Uganda. Journal of African Economies, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.603631.Yeo, R. and K. Moore. (2003). Including Disabled People in Poverty Reduction Work: Nothing About Us, Without Us, World Development, Vol. 31, No. 3 pp.571590, 2003.Pandey, Manoj K. (2009): Poverty and disability among Indian elderly: evidence from household survey. Unpublished report.Copyright 2018 International Federation of Social Workers. All rights reserved.

EmpoweringIndependenceIndependent Living not only means equal rights, but also equal responsibility for citizens. Independence implies managing success as well as coping with challenges.An IntegratedCommunityPeople with disabilities are equal and important members of our community and society. CPWD helps provide the support and services they need to live fulfilling, independent lives.Sharing, Learning,GrowingAt CPWD, we value community, sharing, learning, growing and working together so that every person can achieve fulfillment and independence. We welcome your participation.READ MORE...Our GoalCPWDs goal is an integrated community that equally welcomes all members. The Center for People with Disabilities works so that people with disabilities may live independently. We believe that there is nothing more disabling than pity. Click hereto make a gift toCPWD!CPWD is looking for Board Members! Please click here to find out about Board requirements and commitments, and how to contact us if you are interested. Thank you!People with disabilities are a powerful and significant part of our community, yet as a group our social roles have been marginalized by bigotry, discrimination, poverty, isolation, dependency and pity. Americans with disabilities have not had access to transportation, housing and employment that other citizens have enjoyed CPWD will change that.CPWDs Boulder office closures align with BVSD. Please click here for the BVSD site if they are closed or delayed, so is CPWD. If they are open, so is CPWD unless otherwise stated. Thank you.

Library Services for People with Print DisabilitiesNLS Talking (Audio) and Braille BooksTalking (audio) and braille books by mail, downloadable books and magazines via desktop or mobile app, descriptive videos, and audio playback equipment are available for loan FREE OF CHARGE to Californians unable to read conventional print due to a visual or physical disability.Find your countyPlease select your county of residence from the list below to be directed to the appropriate California National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) network library.Contact Braille Institute LibraryNational Federation for the Blind NEWSLINE By dialing local or in some cases a tollfree number, over 300 national and local (including 19 California) newspapers are now available over any touchtone telephone via synthetic speech. Individuals who are blind or visually impaired can become eligible for this free service by filling out a simple application. Please contact the library in your area from the above listing.Telephonic Reader Programs available via Greater Sacramento and Los Angeles areas.Telephonic Reader Programs allow persons with visual impairments to use their telephone touch tone key pads to listen to local magazines, weekly newspapers, TV Guide listings, archived radio shows, bus schedules, newsletters and shopping advertisements. In Sacramento please contact the Society for the Blind . In Los Angeles contact the Braille Institute Library .Assistive TechnologyAccessible computers are available for use at all of Californias NLS Network Libraries. Please contact each library for details about which adaptive hardware and assistive software is available. Computers may be equipped with:Screen reader software:

Welcome to People With Disabilities (WA)Facebook By Weblizar Powered By WeblizarPWDWA provide nonlegal advocacy to people with disabilities. Advocacy is the process of standing alongside individuals to ensure that people are able to speak out, to express their views and uphold their rights. Our advocacy services are available to any person with a disability. You do not have to be a member to access advocacy. All of the advocacy work that PWdWA does follows the principals of the National Disability StrategyMembership to PWDWA is free and open to West Australian residentsliving with a disability (full membership) or those who identify with the aims of the organisation (Associate).

En espaolPrograms and ServicesThe Employment Development Department (EDD) is committed to enhancing employment opportunities for people with disabilities. Through the Americas Job Center of CaliforniaSM (AJCC), the EDD provides universal access for services, ensuring that all job applicants with disabilities receive equal employment opportunities as any candidate. The EDD also provides assistance to job seekers with disabilities who need additional services to become qualified for employment including referrals to job openings or training, vocational counseling, job search assistance and workshops, testing, and referrals to supportive services in the community.Employment Opportunity ProgramsThe Employment Development Department (EDD) proudly administers two federallyfunded programs designed to enhance employment opportunities for people with disabilities: Disability Employment Accelerator and the Disability Employment Initiative.Disability Employment AcceleratorThe Disability Employment Accelerator (DEA) focuses on partnerships between the Americas Job Center of California locations and the business community to recognize the skills and abilities which meet the needs of California employers and accelerate employment and reemployment strategies for individuals with disabilities. The DEA program focuses on creating connections and engaging businesses to develop strategies for people with disabilities to become professionally successful. The DEAs goal is to fund ground up solutions to some of the most difficult challenges that are keeping people with disabilities from achieving success in jobs and careers.Disability Employment InitiativeThe Disability Employment Initiative (DEI) partners with employers to provide services to individuals with disabilities to place them on the path to permanentsecure jobs. The DEI goals are:To improve educational, training, and employment opportunities and outcomes of youth and adults with disabilities who are unemployed, underemployed, andor receiving Social Security disability benefits.To help individuals with disabilities find a path into the middle class through exemplary and model service delivery by the public workforce system.Disability Resource Coordinators in CaliforniaEight California Local Workforce Development Areas (Local Areas) have Disability Resource Coordinators (DRC) to coordinate training and education for staff, organize and facilitate collaborations with local, state, and federal agencies, as well as nonlocal areas and organizations. The DRC develops strategies to create systemic change to improve employment outcomes for people with disabilities. They are located in the following Local Areas: