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How the chinese have sex

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See also: Chinese classifiersChinese is often described as a monosyllabic language. However, this is only partially correct. It is largely accurate when describing Classical Chinese and Middle Chinese in Classical Chinese, for example, perhaps 90 of words correspond to a single syllable and a single character. In the modern varieties, it is usually the case that a morpheme (unit of meaning) is a single syllable In contrast, English has plenty of multisyllable morphemes, both bound and free, such as seven, elephant, para and able. Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese still have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary.In modern Mandarin, however, most nouns , adjectives and verbs are largely disyllabic. A significant cause of this is phonological attrition . Sound change over time has steadily reduced the number of possible syllables. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1,200 possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5,000 in Vietnamese (still largely monosyllabic) and over 8,000 in English. bThis phonological collapse has led to a corresponding increase in the number of homophones . As an example, the small Langenscheidt Pocket Chinese Dictionary 72 lists six words that are commonly pronounced as sh (tone 2): ten real, actual know (a person), recognize stone time food, eat. These were all pronounced differently in Early Middle Chinese in William H. Baxters transcription they were dzyip, zyit, syik, dzyek, dzyi and zyik respectively. They are still pronounced differently in todays Cantonese in Jyutping they are sap9, sat9, sik7, sek9, si4, sik9. In modern spoken Mandarin, however, tremendous ambiguity would result if all of these words could be used asis Yuen Ren Chao s modern poem LionEating Poet in the Stone Den exploits this, consisting of 92 characters all pronounced shi. As such, most of these words have been replaced (in speech, if not in writing) with a longer, lessambiguous compound. Only the first one, ten, normally appears as such when spoken the rest are normally replaced with, respectively, shj (lit. actualconnection) rnshi (lit. recognizeknow) shtou (lit. stonehead) shjin (lit. timeinterval) shw (lit. foodthing). In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding another morpheme, typically either a synonym or a generic word of some sort (for example, head, thing), the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of the other, homophonic syllable should be selected.However, when one of the above words forms part of a compound, the disambiguating syllable is generally dropped and the resulting word is still disyllabic. For example, sh alone, not shtou, appears in compounds meaning stone, for example, shgo plaster (lit. stone cream), shhu lime (lit. stone dust), shk grotto (lit. stone cave), shyng quartz (lit. stone flower), shyu petroleum (lit. stone oil).Most modern varieties of Chinese have the tendency to form new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetracharacter compounds . In some cases, monosyllabic words have become disyllabic without compounding, as in klong from kng this is especially common in Jin .Chinese morphology is strictly bound to a set number of syllables with a fairly rigid construction. Although many of these singlesyllable morphemes (, z) can stand alone as individual words , they more often than not form multisyllabic compounds , known as c (), which more closely resembles the traditional Western notion of a word. A Chinese c (word) can consist of more than one charactermorpheme, usually two, but there can be three or more.For example:hnbobo, hnbo , hamburgerw I, mern people, human, mankinddqi The Earthshndin lightningmng dreamAll varieties of modern Chinese are analytic languages , in that they depend on syntax (word order and sentence structure) rather than morphology i.e., changes in form of a wordto indicate the words function in a sentence. 73 In other words, Chinese has very few grammatical inflections it possesses no tenses , no voices , no numbers (singular, plural though there are plural markers, for example for personal pronouns), and only a few articles (i.e., equivalents to the, a, an in English). cThey make heavy use of grammatical particles to indicate aspect and mood . In Mandarin Chinese, this involves the use of particles like le (perfective), hi (still), yjng (already), and so on.Chinese has a subjectverbobject word order , and like many other languages in East Asia , makes frequent use of the topiccomment construction to form sentences. Chinese also has an extensive system of classifiers and measure words , another trait shared with neighboring languages like Japanese and Korean . Other notable grammatical features common to all the spoken varieties of Chinese include the use of serial verb construction , pronoun dropping and the related subject dropping .Although the grammars of the spoken varieties share many traits, they do possess differences.Vocabulary edit The entire Chinese character corpus since antiquity comprises well over 20,000 characters, of which only roughly 10,000 are now commonly in use. However Chinese characters should not be confused with Chinese words. Because most Chinese words are made up of two or more characters, there are many more Chinese words than characters. A better term for a Chinese character would be morpheme , as characters represent the smallest grammatical units, individual meanings, andor syllables in the Chinese language.Estimates of the total number of Chinese words and phrases vary greatly. The Hanyu Da Zidian , a compendium of Chinese characters, includes 54,678 head entries for characters, including bone oracle versions. The Zhonghua Zihai (1994) contains 85,568 head entries for character definitions, and is the largest reference work based purely on character and its literary variants. The CCCEDICT project (2010) contains 97,404 contemporary entries including idioms, technology terms and names of political figures, businesses and products. The 2009 version of the Websters Digital Chinese Dictionary (WDCD), 74 based on CCCEDICT , contains over 84,000 entries.The most comprehensive pure linguistic Chineselanguage dictionary, the 12volumed Hanyu Da Cidian , records more than 23,000 head Chinese characters and gives over 370,000 definitions. The 1999 revised Cihai , a multivolume encyclopedic dictionary reference work, gives 122,836 vocabulary entry definitions under 19,485 Chinese characters, including proper names, phrases and common zoological, geographical, sociological, scientific and technical terms.The 7th (2016) edition of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian , an authoritative onevolume dictionary on modern standard Chinese language as used in mainland China , has 13,000 head characters and defines 70,000 words.Loanwords edit Like any other language, Chinese has absorbed a sizable number of loanwords from other cultures. Most Chinese words are formed out of native Chinese morphemes, including words describing imported objects and ideas. However, direct phonetic borrowing of foreign words has gone on since ancient times.Some early IndoEuropean loanwords in Chinese have been proposed, notably m honey, sh lion, and perhaps also m horse, zh pig, qun dog, and goose. d Ancient words borrowed from along the Silk Road since Old Chinese include pto grape , shliushli pomegranate and shzi lion . Some words were borrowed from Buddhist scriptures, including F Buddha and Ps bodhisattva. Other words came from nomadic peoples to the north, such as htng hutong . Words borrowed from the peoples along the Silk Road, such as grape, generally have Persian etymologies. Buddhist terminology is generally derived from Sanskrit or Pli , the liturgical languages of North India . Words borrowed from the nomadic tribes of the Gobi , Mongolian or northeast regions generally have Altaic etymologies, such as pp, the Chinese lute, or lolu cheese or yoghurt, but from exactly which source is not always clear. 75See also: Translation of neologisms into Chinese and Transcription into Chinese charactersModern neologisms are primarily translated into Chinese in one of three ways: free translation ( calque , or by meaning), phonetic translation (by sound), or a combination of the two . Today, it is much more common to use existing Chinese morphemes to coin new words in order to represent imported concepts, such as technical expressions and international scientific vocabulary . Any Latin or Greek etymologies are dropped and converted into the corresponding Chinese characters (for example, anti typically becomes , literally opposite), making them more comprehensible for Chinese but introducing more difficulties in understanding foreign texts. For example, the word telephone was loaned phonetically as (Shanghainese: tlfon tlfo, Mandarin: dlfng) during the 1920s and widely used in Shanghai, but later dinhu (lit. electric speech), built out of native Chinese morphemes, became prevalent ( is in fact from the Japanese denwa see below for more Japanese loans). Other examples include dinsh (lit. electric vision) for television, dinno (lit. electric brain) for computer shuj (lit. hand machine) for mobile phone, lny (lit. blue tooth) for Bluetooth , and wngzh (lit. internet logbook) for blog in Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese. Occasionally halftransliteration, halftranslation compromises are accepted, such as hnbobo ( hnbo Hamburg bo bun) for hamburger. Sometimes translations are designed so that they sound like the original while incorporating Chinese morphemes ( phonosemantic matching ), such as tulj tractor (lit. draggingpulling machine), or Mlo for the video game character Mario . This is often done for commercial purposes, for example bntng (lit. dashingleaping) for Pentium and Sibiwi (lit. betterthan hundred tastes) for Subway restaurants .Foreign words, mainly proper nouns , continue to enter the Chinese language by transcription according to their pronunciations. This is done by employing Chinese characters with similar pronunciations. For example, Israel becomes Ysli, Paris becomes Bl. A rather small number of direct transliterations have survived as common words, including shf sofa, md motor, yum humor, lujiluj logic, shmo smart, fashionable, and xisdl hysterics. The bulk of these words were originally coined in the Shanghai dialect during the early 20th century and were later loaned into Mandarin, hence their pronunciations in Mandarin may be quite off from the English. For example, sofa and motor in Shanghainese sound more like their English counterparts. Cantonese differs from Mandarin with some transliterations, such as so1 faa32 sofa and mo1 daa2 motor.Western foreign words representing Western concepts have influenced Chinese since the 20th century through transcription. From French came bli ballet and xingbn, champagne from Italian , kfi caff. English influence is particularly pronounced. From early 20th century Shanghainese, many English words are borrowed, such as gorf golf and the abovementioned shf sofa. Later, the United States soft influences gave rise to dsikdsk disco, kl cola, and mn mini skirt. Contemporary colloquial Cantonese has distinct loanwords from English, such as kaa1 tung1cartoon, gei1 lou2 gay people, dik1 si62 taxi, and baa1 si62 bus. With the rising popularity of the Internet, there is a current vogue in China for coining English transliterations, for example, fns fans, hik hacker (lit. black guest), and bk blog. In Taiwan, some of these transliterations are different, such as hik for hacker and blug for blog (lit. interconnected tribes).Another result of the English influence on Chinese is the appearance in Modern Chinese texts of socalled zmc (lit. lettered words) spelled with letters from the English alphabet. This has appeared in magazines, newspapers, on web sites, and on TV: GG 3rd generation cell phones ( sn three G generation shuj mobile phones), IT IT circles (IT information technology ji industry), HSK (Hny Shupng Kosh, ), GB (Gubio, ), CIFCIF (CIF Cost, Insurance, Freight ji price), e ehome (e electronic jitng home), WW wireless era (W wireless shdi era), TV TV watchers (TV television z social group clan), PC postPC era ( hu afterpost PC personal computer ), and so on.Since the 20th century, another source of words has been Japanese using existing kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese). Japanese remolded European concepts and inventions into waseikango (, lit. Japanesemade Chinese), and many of these words have been reloaned into modern Chinese. Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature. For example, jngj ( keizai in Japanese), which in the original Chinese meant the workings of the state, was narrowed to economy in Japanese this narrowed definition was then reimported into Chinese. As a result, these terms are virtually indistinguishable from native Chinese words: indeed, there is some dispute over some of these terms as to whether the Japanese or Chinese coined them first. As a result of this loaning, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese share a corpus of linguistic terms describing modern terminology, paralleling the similar corpus of terms built from GrecoLatin and shared among European languages.

Chinas paramount leader Xi Jinping holds hands with fellow BRICS leaders at the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit in AustraliaDiplomatic Relations of ChinaThe PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162 . Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition . In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council . 206 China was also a former member and leader of the NonAligned Movement , and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries . 207 Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the groups third official summit at Sanya , Hainan in April 2011. 208Under its interpretation of the OneChina policy , Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, 209 especially in the matter of armament sales. 210Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai s Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , and is also driven by the concept of harmony without uniformity, which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. 211 This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe , North Korea and Iran . 212 China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia, 213 and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council. 214 215 216Trade relationsIn recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its AsiaPacific neighbours. China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001. In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues. 217 The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three , India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), along with Russia and the Central Asian republics.In 2000, the United States Congress approved permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries. 218 China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market. 219 In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage. 220 221 222 In recent decades, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral cooperation 223 224 225 in 2012, SinoAfrican trade totalled over US160 billion. 226 China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina . 227 228Territorial disputesSee also: List of wars involving the Peoples Republic of China and CrossStrait relationsMap depicting territorial disputes between the PRC and neighbouring states. For a larger map, see here .Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War , the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province , Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province . These claims are controversial because of the complicated CrossStrait relations , with the PRC treating the OneChina policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles. 229In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Since the 1990s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan . China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal . 230 231 On 21 May 2014 Xi Jinping , speaking at a conference in Shanghai, pledged to settle Chinas territorial disputes peacefully. China stays committed to seeking peaceful settlement of disputes with other countries over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, he said. 232Emerging superpower statusChina is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower , with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century. 28 233 Others, however, warn that economic bubbles and demographic imbalances could slow or even halt Chinas growth as the century progresses. 234 235 Some authors also question the definition of superpower, arguing that Chinas large economy alone would not qualify it as a superpower, and noting that it lacks the military power and cultural influence of the United States. 236Sociopolitical issues, human rights and reformSee also: Human rights in China , Hukou system , Social welfare in China , Elections in the Peoples Republic of China , Censorship in China , and Feminism in ChinaThe Chinese democracy movement , social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China states that the fundamental rights of citizens include freedom of speech , freedom of the press , the right to a fair trial , freedom of religion , universal suffrage , and property rights . However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state. 237 238 Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet, 239 240 are routinely used to prevent collective action. 241 In 2005, Reporters Without Borders ranked China 159th out of 167 states in its Annual World Press Freedom Index, indicating a very low level of press freedom. 242 In 2014, China ranked 175th out of 180 countries. 243Rural migrants to Chinas cities often find themselves treated as secondclass citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits . 244 245 Property rights are often poorly protected, 244 and taxation disproportionately affects poorer citizens. 245 However, a number of rural taxes have been reduced or abolished since the early 2000s, and additional social services provided to rural dwellers. 246 247Candlelight vigil on the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protestsA number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies and NGOs also routinely criticize Chinas human rights record , alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions , 248 forced confessions, torture , restrictions of fundamental rights, 190 249 and excessive use of the death penalty . 250 251 The government has suppressed popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to social stability, as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .Falun Gong was first taught publicly in 1992. In 1999, when there were 70 million practitioners, 252 the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody. 253 254 The Chinese state is regularly accused of largescale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang , including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression . 255 256 The state has even sought to control offshore reporting of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreignbased reporters by detaining their family members. 257The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a countrys present level of economic development . 258 It emphasizes the rise in the Chinese standard of living , literacy rate and average life expectancy since the 1970s, as well as improvements in workplace safety and efforts to combat natural disasters such as the perennial Yangtze River floods. 258 259 260 Furthermore, some Chinese politicians have spoken out in support of democratization, although others remain more conservative . 261 Some major reform efforts have been conducted for an instance in November 2013, the government announced plans to relax the onechild policy and abolish the muchcriticized reeducation through labour program, 141 though human rights groups note that reforms to the latter have been largely cosmetic. 253 During the 2000s and early 2010s, the Chinese government was increasingly tolerant of NGOs that offer practical, efficient solutions to social problems, but such third sector activity remained heavily regulated. 262 263MilitaryA PLA air force Chengdu J20 stealth fighter aircraftWith 2.3 million active troops, the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC). 264 The PLA consists of the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), and the Peoples Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF). According to the Chinese government, Chinas military budget for 2017 totalled US151,5 billion, constituting the worlds secondlargest military budget , although the military expendituresGDP ratio with 1,3 of GDP is below world average. 25 However, many authorities including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. 25 265As a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower . 266 According to a 2013 report by the US Department of Defense , China fields between 50 and 75 nuclear ICBMs , along with a number of SRBMs . 24 However, compared with the other four UN Security Council Permanent Members, China has relatively limited power projection capabilities. 267 To offset this, it has developed numerous power projection assets since the early 2000s its first aircraft carrier entered service in 2012, 268 269 270 and it maintains a substantial fleet of submarines , including several nuclearpowered attack and ballistic missile submarines. 271 China has furthermore established a network of foreign military relationships along critical sea lanes . 272China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su30 , and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J10 , J20 and the Shenyang J11 , J15 , J16 , and J31 . 268 273 China is furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft and numerous combat drones . 274 275 276 Air and Sea denial weaponry advances have increased the regional threat from the perspective of Japan as well as Washington. 277 278 China has also updated its ground forces, replacing its ageing Soviet derived tank inventory with numerous variants of the modern Type 99 tank , and upgrading its battlefield C3I and C4I systems to enhance its networkcentric warfare capabilities. 279 In addition, China has developed or acquired numerous advanced missile systems, 280 281 including antisatellite missiles , 282 cruise missiles 283 and submarinelaunched nuclear ICBMs. 284 According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute s data, China became the worlds third largest exporter of major arms in 201014, an increase of 143 per cent from the period 200509. 285 Chinese officials stated that spending on the military will rise to U.S. 173B in 2018. foxEconomyMain articles: Economy of China , Agriculture in China , and List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDPChina and other major developing economies by GDP per capita at purchasingpower parity , 19902013. The rapid economic growth of China (blue) is readily apparent. 286The Shanghai Stock Exchange building in Shanghai s Lujiazui financial district. Shanghai has the 25thlargest city GDP in the world, totalling US304 billion in 2011 287China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. 288 289 As of 2014 update , China has the worlds secondlargest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US10.380 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund . citation needed In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP, Chinas economy is the largest in the world, with a 2014 PPP GDP of US17.617 trillion. citation needed In 2013, its PPP GDP per capita was US12,880, while its nominal GDP per capita was US7,589. Both cases put China behind around eighty countries (out of 183 countries on the IMF list) in global GDP per capita rankings. 290Economic history and growthMain article: Economic history of China (1949present)From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the Peoples Republic of China was a Sovietstyle centrally planned economy . Following Maos death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more marketoriented mixed economy under oneparty rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Inefficient stateowned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modernday China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, 291 and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism . 292 293 The state still dominates in strategic pillar sectors such as energy production and heavy industries , but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30million private businesses recorded in 2008. 294 295 296 297Headquarters of Alibaba Group in HangzhouSince economic liberalization began in 1978, China has been among the worlds fastestgrowing economies, 298 relying largely on investment and exportled growth. 299 According to the IMF, Chinas annual average GDP growth between 2001 and 2010 was 10.5. Between 2007 and 2011, Chinas economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries growth combined. 300 According to the Global Growth Generators index announced by Citigroup in February 2011, China has a very high 3G growth rating. 301 Its high productivity, low labor costs and relatively good infrastructure have made it a global leader in manufacturing. However, the Chinese economy is highly energyintensive and inefficient 302 China became the worlds largest energy consumer in 2010, 303 relies on coal to supply over 70 of its energy needs, and surpassed the US to become the worlds largest oil importer in September 2013. 304 305 In the early 2010s, Chinas economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy. 306 307 308In the online realm, Chinas ecommerce industry has grown more slowly than the EU and the US, with a significant period of development occurring from around 2009 onwards. According to Credit Suisse , the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US660 billion) in 2012. The Chinese online payment market is dominated by major firms such as Alipay , Tenpay and China UnionPay . 309China in the global economyChina is a member of the WTO and is the worlds largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US3.87trillion in 2012. 23 Its foreign exchange reserves reached US2.85trillion by the end of 2010, an increase of 18.7 over the previous year, making its reserves by far the worlds largest. 310 311 In 2012, China was the worlds largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting 253 billion. 312 In 2014, Chinas foreign exchange remittances were US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world. 313 China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of 62.4billion in 2012, 312 and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies. 314 In 2009, China owned an estimated 1.6trillion of US securities , 315 and was also the largest foreign holder of US public debt , owning over 1.16 trillion in US Treasury bonds . 316 317 Chinas undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies, 221 318 319 and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods. 320 321 According to consulting firm McKinsey , total outstanding debt in China increased from 7.4 trillion in 2007 to 28.2 trillion in 2014, which reflects 228 of Chinas GDP. 322 In 2017 the Institute of International Finance reported that Chinas debt had reached 304 of its GDP. 323Graph comparing the 2014 nominal GDPsof major economies in US billions (

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