How to have sex horses
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Main articles: Horse gait , Trot (horse gait) , Canter , and AmblingAll horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the fourbeat walk , which averages 6.4 kilometres per hour (4.0mph) the twobeat trot or jog at 13 to 19 kilometres per hour (8.1 to 11.8mph) (faster for harness racing horses) the canter or lope , a threebeat gait that is 19 to 24 kilometres per hour (12 to 15mph) and the gallop . 82 The gallop averages 40 to 48 kilometres per hour (25 to 30mph), 83 but the world record for a horse galloping over a short, sprint distance is 70.76 kilometres per hour (43.97mph). 81 Besides these basic gaits, some horses perform a twobeat pace , instead of the trot. 84 There also are several fourbeat ambling gaits that are approximately the speed of a trot or pace, though smoother to ride. These include the lateral rack , running walk , and tlt as well as the diagonal fox trot . 85 Ambling gaits are often genetic in some breeds, known collectively as gaited horses . 86 Often, gaited horses replace the trot with one of the ambling gaits. 87BehaviorMain articles: Horse behavior and Stable vicesHorses are prey animals with a strong fightorflight response . Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened. 88 They also tend to be curious when startled, they will often hesitate an instant to ascertain the cause of their fright, and may not always flee from something that they perceive as nonthreatening. Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. 89Horses are herd animals , with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare. They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language . Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses. 90 However, when confined with insufficient companionship, exercise, or stimulation, individuals may develop stable vices , an assortment of bad habits, mostly stereotypies of psychological origin, that include wood chewing, wall kicking, weaving (rocking back and forth), and other problems. 91Intelligence and learningStudies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system . They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. 92 They are naturally curious and apt to investigate things they have not seen before. 93 Studies have assessed equine intelligence in areas such as problem solving , speed of learning, and memory . Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning . They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement . 92 One study has indicated that horses can differentiate between more or less if the quantity involved is less than four. 94Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural. 92 Horses are animals of habit that respond well to regimentation, and respond best when the same routines and techniques are used consistently. One trainer believes that intelligent horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animals natural inclinations. 95TemperamentMain articles: Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horseHorses are mammals , and as such are warmblooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to coldblooded, or poikilothermic animals. However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature . For example, the hotbloods, such as many race horses , exhibit more sensitivity and energy, 96 while the coldbloods, such as most draft breeds , are quieter and calmer. 97 Sometimes hotbloods are classified as light horses or riding horses, 98 with the coldbloods classified as draft horses or work horses. 99Illustration of assorted breeds slim, light hotbloods, mediumsized warmbloods and draft and ponytype coldblood breedsHot blooded breeds include oriental horses such as the AkhalTeke , Arabian horse , Barb and nowextinct Turkoman horse , as well as the Thoroughbred , a breed developed in England from the older oriental breeds. 96 Hot bloods tend to be spirited, bold, and learn quickly. They are bred for agility and speed. 100 They tend to be physically refinedthinskinned, slim, and longlegged. 101 The original oriental breeds were brought to Europe from the Middle East and North Africa when European breeders wished to infuse these traits into racing and light cavalry horses. 102 103Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as cold bloods, as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people. 97 They are sometimes nicknamed gentle giants. 104 Wellknown draft breeds include the Belgian and the Clydesdale . 104 Some, like the Percheron , are lighter and livelier, developed to pull carriages or to plow large fields in drier climates. 105 Others, such as the Shire , are slower and more powerful, bred to plow fields with heavy, claybased soils. 106 The coldblooded group also includes some pony breeds. 107 Warmblood breeds, such as the Trakehner or Hanoverian , developed when European carriage and war horses were crossed with Arabians or Thoroughbreds, producing a riding horse with more refinement than a draft horse, but greater size and milder temperament than a lighter breed. 108 Certain pony breeds with warmblood characteristics have been developed for smaller riders. 109 Warmbloods are considered a light horse or riding horse. 98Today, the term Warmblood refers to a specific subset of sport horse breeds that are used for competition in dressage and show jumping . 110 Strictly speaking, the term warm blood refers to any cross between coldblooded and hotblooded breeds. 111 Examples include breeds such as the Irish Draught or the Cleveland Bay . The term was once used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse . 100Sleep patternsSee also: Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in nonhumansWhen horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch.Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a stay apparatus in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing. 112 Horses sleep better when in groups because some animals will sleep while others stand guard to watch for predators. A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger. 113Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest. Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down. Total sleep time in a 24hour period may range from several minutes to a couple of hours, 113 mostly in short intervals of about 15minutes each. 114 The average sleep time of a domestic horse is said to be 2.9 hours per day. 115Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep . They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements. 113 However, if a horse is never allowed to lie down, after several days it will become sleepdeprived, and in rare cases may suddenly collapse as it involuntarily slips into REM sleep while still standing. 116 This condition differs from narcolepsy , although horses may also suffer from that disorder. 117Taxonomy and evolutionMain articles: Evolution of the horse , Equus (genus) , and EquidaeThe horse adapted to survive in areas of wideopen terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants , could not. 118 Horses and other equids are oddtoed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla , a group of mammals that was dominant during the Tertiary period. In the past, this order contained 14 families , but only three Equidae (the horse and related species), Tapiridae (the tapir ), and Rhinocerotidae (the rhinoceroses )have survived to the present day. 119The earliest known member of the family Equidae was the Hyracotherium , which lived between 45 and 55million years ago, during the Eocene period. It had 4toes on each front foot, and 3toes on each back foot. 120 The extra toe on the front feet soon disappeared with the Mesohippus , which lived 32 to 37million years ago. 121 Over time, the extra side toes shrank in size until they vanished. All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, 122 known informally as splint bones. 123 Their legs also lengthened as their toes disappeared until they were a hooved animal capable of running at great speed. 122 By about 5million years ago, the modern Equus had evolved. 124 Equid teeth also evolved from browsing on soft, tropical plants to adapt to browsing of drier plant material, then to grazing of tougher plains grasses. Thus protohorses changed from leafeating forestdwellers to grasseating inhabitants of semiarid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America.By about 15,000 years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species. Horse bones from this time period, the late Pleistocene , are found in Europe, Eurasia, Beringia , and North America. 125 Yet between 10,000 and 7,600 years ago, the horse became extinct in North America and rare elsewhere. 126 127 128 The reasons for this extinction are not fully known, but one theory notes that extinction in North America paralleled human arrival. 129 Another theory points to climate change, noting that approximately 12,500 years ago, the grasses characteristic of a steppe ecosystem gave way to shrub tundra , which was covered with unpalatable plants. 130Wild species surviving into modern timesA small herd of Przewalskis HorsesMain article: Wild horseA truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated. Therefore, most wild horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals. 131 Only two neverdomesticated subspecies, the Tarpan and the Przewalskis Horse , survived into recorded history and only the latter survives today.The Przewalskis horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky , is a rare Asian animal. It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse Mongolian people know it as the taki, and the Kyrgyz people call it a kirtag. The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between 1969 and 1992, while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world. In 1992, it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos. 132 Today, a small wild breeding population exists in Mongolia. 133 134 There are additional animals still maintained at zoos throughout the world.The tarpan or European wild horse (Equus ferus ferus) was found in Europe and much of Asia. It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in 1909, when the last captive died in a Russian zoo. 135 Thus, the genetic line was lost. Attempts have been made to recreate the tarpan, 135 136 137 which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses.Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic. For example, the Riwoche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, 134 but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses. 138 Similarly, the Sorraia of Portugal was proposed as a direct descendant of the Tarpan based on shared characteristics, 139 140 but genetic studies have shown that the Sorraia is more closely related to other horse breeds and that the outward similarity is an unreliable measure of relatedness. 139 141Other modern equidsMain article: Equus (genus)Besides the horse, there are seven other species of genus Equus in the Equidae family . These are the ass or donkey , Equus asinus the mountain zebra , Equus zebra plains zebra , Equus quagga Grvys zebra , Equus grevyi the kiang , Equus kiang and the onager , Equus hemionus. 142Horses can crossbreed with other members of their genus. The most common hybrid is the mule , a cross between a jack (male donkey) and a mare . A related hybrid, a hinny , is a cross between a stallion and a jenny (female donkey). 143 Other hybrids include the zorse , a cross between a zebra and a horse. 144 With rare exceptions, most hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce. 145DomesticationMain articles: History of horse domestication theories and Domestication of the horseBhimbetka rock painting showing man riding on horse, IndiaDomestication of the horse most likely took place in central Asia prior to 3500 BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world. The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately 35004000 BC. 146 147 148 By 3000 BC, the horse was completely domesticated and by 2000 BC there was a sharp increase in the number of horse bones found in human settlements in northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses throughout the continent. 149 The most recent, but most irrefutable evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrovka cultures c. 2100 BC. 150Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of presentday horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and palaeological excavations. The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, 151 152 while many mares were part of early domesticated herds. 141 153 154 This is reflected in the difference in genetic variation between the DNA that is passed on along the paternal, or sire line ( Ychromosome ) versus that passed on along the maternal, or dam line ( mitochondrial DNA ). There are very low levels of Ychromosome variability, 151 152 but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA. 141 153 154 There is also regional variation in mitochondrial DNA due to the inclusion of wild mares in domestic herds. 141 153 154 155 Another characteristic of domestication is an increase in coat color variation. 156 In horses, this increased dramatically between 5000 and 3000 BC. 157Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication. 107 Another hypothesis held that the four prototypes originated from a single wild species and that all different body types were entirely a result of selective breeding after domestication. 158 However, the lack of a detectable substructure in the horse has resulted in a rejection of both hypotheses.Feral populationsMain article: Feral horseFeral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. 131 Many populations of feral horses exist throughout the world. 159 160 Studies of feral herds have provided useful insights into the behavior of prehistoric horses, 161 as well as greater understanding of the instincts and behaviors that drive horses that live in domesticated conditions. 162There are also semiferal horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in wild conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands. Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. 163 164BreedsMain articles: Horse breed , List of horse breeds , and Horse breedingThe concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times. Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called thoroughbreds. Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a purebred is a horse (or any other animal) with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry. 165 Horse breeds are groups of horses with distinctive characteristics that are transmitted consistently to their offspring, such as conformation , color, performance ability, or disposition. These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication . An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin , who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines. 166 These pedigrees were originally transmitted via an oral tradition . 167 In the 14th century, Carthusian monks of southern Spain kept meticulous pedigrees of bloodstock lineages still found today in the Andalusian horse . 168Breeds developed due to a need for form to function, the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work. 169 Thus, a powerful but refined breed such as the Andalusian developed as riding horses with an aptitude for dressage . 169 Heavy draft horses developed out of a need to perform demanding farm work and pull heavy wagons. 170 Other horse breeds developed specifically for light agricultural work, carriage and road work, various sport disciplines, or simply as pets. 171 Some breeds developed through centuries of crossing other breeds, while others descended from a single foundation sire , or other limited or restricted foundation bloodstock. One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in 1791 and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed. 172 There are more than 300horse breeds in the world today. 173Interaction with humansEquine hospital in the United KingdomWorldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that in 2008, there were almost 59,000,000 horses in the world, with around 33,500,000 in the Americas, 13,800,000 in Asia and 6,300,000 in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania. There are estimated to be 9,500,000 horses in the United States alone. 174 The American Horse Council estimates that horserelated activities have a direct impact on the economy of the United States of over 39 billion, and when indirect spending is considered, the impact is over 102 billion. 175 In a 2004 poll conducted by Animal Planet , more than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted for the horse as the worlds 4th favorite animal. 176Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity 177 to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control. 178 Sometimes horses are ridden without a saddle, 179 and occasionally, horses are trained to perform without a bridle or other headgear. 180 Many horses are also driven , which requires a harness , bridle, and some type of vehicle . 181SportMain articles: Equestrianism , Horse racing , Horse training , and Horse tackHistorically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle. Many sports, such as dressage , eventing and show jumping , have origins in military training , which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider. Other sports, such as rodeo , developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations . Sport hunting from horseback evolved from earlier practical hunting techniques. 177 Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between riders or drivers. All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport. The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. 177Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping , dressage , threeday eventing , competitive driving , endurance riding , gymkhana , rodeos , and fox hunting . 182 Horse shows , which have their origins in medieval European fairs, are held around the world. They host a huge range of classes, covering all of the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as Inhand classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation. The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider. 183 Sports such as polo do not judge the horse itself, but rather use the horse as a partner for human competitors as a necessary part of the game. Although the horse requires specialized training to participate, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the riders actionsbe it getting a ball through a goal or some other task. 184 Examples of these sports of partnership between human and horse include jousting , in which the main goal is for one rider to unseat the other, 185 and buzkashi , a team game played throughout Central Asia , the aim being to capture a goat carcass while on horseback. 184Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world. There are three types: flat racing steeplechasing , i.e. racing over jumps and harness racing , where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a small, light cart known as a sulky . 186 A major part of horse racings economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it. 187WorkA mounted police officer in PolandThere are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them. For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. 188 Cattle ranches still require riders on horseback to round up cattle that are scattered across remote, rugged terrain. 189 Search and rescue organizations in some countries depend upon mounted teams to locate people, particularly hikers and children, and to provide disaster relief assistance. 190 Horses can also be used in areas where it is necessary to avoid vehicular disruption to delicate soil, such as nature reserves. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas . Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective. 191Tanga (carriage) at Darbhanga BiharAlthough machinery has replaced horses in many parts of the world, an estimated 100million horses, donkeys and mules are still used for agriculture and transportation in less developed areas. This number includes around 27million working animals in Africa alone. 192 Some land management practices such as cultivating and logging can be efficiently performed with horses. In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses. 193 194 Logging with horses can result in reduced damage to soil structure and less damage to trees due to more selective logging. 195Entertainment and cultureSee also: Horses in art and Horse worshipModern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes. Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles. 196 Horses are also used to preserve cultural traditions and for ceremonial purposes. Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horsedrawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events. 197 Public exhibitions are another example, such as the Budweiser Clydesdales , seen in parades and other public settings, a team of draft horses that pull a beer wagon similar to that used before the invention of the modern motorized truck. 198Horses are frequently seen in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories. 199 Both live horses and iconic images of horses are used in advertising to promote a variety of products. 200 The horse frequently appears in coats of arms in heraldry , in a variety of poses and equipment. 201 The mythologies of many cultures, including GrecoRoman , Hindu , Islamic , and Norse , include references to both normal horses and those with wings or additional limbs, and multiple myths also call upon the horse to draw the chariots of the Moon and Sun. 202 The horse also appears in the 12year cycle of animals in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar . 203Therapeutic useSee also: Hippotherapy and Therapeutic horseback ridingPeople of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased selfconfidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence. 204 The benefits of equestrian activity for people with disabilities has also been recognized with the addition of equestrian events to the Paralympic Games and recognition of paraequestrian events by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI). 205 Hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding are names for different physical, occupational, and speech therapy treatment strategies that utilize equine movement. In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horses movement to improve their patients cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills. 206Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Equineassisted or equinefacilitated therapy is a form of experiential psychotherapy that uses horses as companion animals to assist people with mental illness, including anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, behavioral difficulties, and those who are going through major life changes. 207 There are also experimental programs using horses in prison settings. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave. 208WarfareTurkish cavalry, 1917A bloated dead horse on the ground in front of Napoleon and Poniatowski at the Battle of Leipzig , painted by January SuchodolskiHorses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between 4000 and 3000 BC, 209 and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age . 210 211 Although mechanization has largely replaced the horse as a weapon of war, horses are still seen today in limited military uses, mostly for ceremonial purposes, or for reconnaissance and transport activities in areas of rough terrain where motorized vehicles are ineffective. Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur . 212ProductsHorses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses.Products collected from living horses include mares milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis . 213 Horse blood was once used as food by the Mongols and other nomadic tribes, who found it a convenient source of nutrition when traveling. Drinking their own horses blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat. 213 The drug Premarin is a mixture of estrogens extracted from the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant mares urine), and was previously a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy . 214 The tail hair of horses can be used for making bows for string instruments such as the violin , viola , cello , and double bass . 215Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, 216 and a subject of political controversy in others. 217 Horsehide leather has been used for boots, gloves, jackets , 218 baseballs , 219 and baseball gloves. Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue . 220 Horse bones can be used to make implements. 221 Specifically, in Italian cuisine, the horse tibia is sharpened into a probe called a spinto, which is used to test the readiness of a (pig) ham as it cures. 222 In Asia, the saba is a horsehide vessel used in the production of kumis . 223CareSee also: Equine nutrition , Horse grooming , Veterinary medicine , and FarrierChecking teeth and other physical examinations are an important part of horse care.Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is goodquality forage from hay or pasture . 224 They can consume approximately 2 to 2.5 of their body weight in dry feed each day. Therefore, a 450kilogram (990lb) adult horse could eat up to 11 kilograms (24lb) of food. 225 Sometimes, concentrated feed such as grain is fed in addition to pasture or hay, especially when the animal is very active. 226 When grain is fed, equine nutritionists recommend that 50 or more of the animals diet by weight should still be forage. 227Horses require a plentiful supply of clean water, a minimum of 10 US gallons (38L) to 12 US gallons (45L) per day. 228 Although horses are adapted to live outside, they require shelter from the wind and precipitation , which can range from a simple shed or shelter to an elaborate stable . 229Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier , as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist. 230 If horses are kept inside in a barn, they require regular daily exercise for their physical health and mental wellbeing. 231 When turned outside, they require wellmaintained, sturdy fences to be safely contained. 232 Regular grooming is also helpful to help the horse maintain good health of the hair coat and underlying skin. 233See alsoReferences
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READ MOREGeneral featuresIn prehistoric times the wild horse was probably first hunted for food. Research suggests that domestication took place by approximately 6,000 years ago. It is supposed that the horse was first used by a tribe of IndoEuropean origin that lived in the steppes north of the chain of mountains adjacent to the Black and Caspian seas. Influenced by climate , food, and humans , the horse rapidly acquired its present form.Cave painting of a bull and a horse in Lascaux Grotto, near Montignac, France.Hans Hinz, BaselThe relationship of the horse to humans has been unique. The horse is a partner and friend. It has plowed fields and brought in the harvest, hauled goods and conveyed passengers, followed game and tracked cattle , and carried combatants into battle and adventurers to unknown lands. It has provided recreation in the form of jousts, tournaments, carousels, and the sport of riding. The influence of the horse is expressed in the English language in such terms as chivalry and cavalier, which connote honour, respect, good manners, and straightforwardness.A team of Clydesdales pulling a plow at a draft horse demonstration. Bob LangrishThe horse is the proudest conquest of Man, according to the French zoologist GeorgesLouis Leclerc, comte de Buffon . Its place was at its masters side in the graves of the Scythian kings or in the tombs of the pharaohs. Many early human cultures were centred on possession of the horse. Superstition read meaning into the colours of the horse, and a horses head suspended near a grave or sanctuary or on the gables of a house conferred supernatural powers on the place. Greek mythology created the Centaur , the most obvious symbol of the oneness of horse and rider. White stallions were the supreme sacrifice to the gods, and the Greek general Xenophon recorded that gods and heroes are depicted on welltrained horses. A beautiful and welltrained horse was, therefore, a status symbol in ancient Greece . Kings, generals, and statesmen, of necessity, had to be horsemen. The names of famous horses are inseparably linked to those of their famous riders: Bucephalus, the charger of Alexander the Great Incitatus, once believed to have been made a senator by the Roman emperor Caligula El Morzillo, Hernn Cortss favourite horse, to whom the Indians erected a statue Roan Barbery, the stallion of Richard II, mentioned by Shakespeare Copenhagen, the duke of Wellingtons horse, which was buried with military honours.The horse has occupied a special place in the realm of art. From Stone Age drawings to the marvel of the Parthenon frieze, from Chinese Tang dynasty tomb sculptures to Leonardo da Vincis sketches and Andrea del Verrocchios Colleoni, from the Qurn to modern literature, the horse has inspired artists of all ages and in all parts of the world.Jade horse head, Chinese, Han dynasty (206 bce220 ce) in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Height 19 cm.Courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum, LondonThe horse in life has served its master in travels, wars, and labours and in death has provided many commodities. Long before their domestication, horses were hunted by primitive tribes for their flesh, and horsemeat is still consumed by people in parts of Europe and in Iceland and is the basis of many pet foods. Horse bones and cartilage are used to make glue. Tetanus antitoxin is obtained from the blood serum of horses previously inoculated with tetanus toxoid. From horsehide a number of articles are manufactured, including fine shoes and belts. The cordovan leather fabricated by the Moors in Crdoba, Spain, was originally made from horsehide. Stylish fur coats are made of the sleek coats of foals. Horsehair has wide use in upholstery, mattresses, and stiff lining for coats and suits highquality horsehair, usually white, is employed for violin bows. Horse manure, which today provides the basis for cultivation of mushrooms, was used by the Scythians for fuel. Mares milk was drunk by the Scythians, the Mongols, and the Arabs.Form and functionA mature male horse is called a stallion , the female a mare. A stallion used for breeding is known as a stud. A castrated stallion is commonly called a gelding . Formerly, stallions were employed as riding horses, while mares were kept for breeding purposes only. Geldings were used for work and as ladies riding horses. Recently, however, geldings generally have replaced stallions as riding horses. Young horses are known as foals male foals are called colts and females fillies.horse anatomySkeleton (top) and external structure (bottom) of the horse.Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.Anatomical adaptationsThe primitive horse probably stood 12 hands (about 120 cm, or 48 inches) tall at the withers, the high point on the back at the base of the neck, and was dun coloured (typically brownish to dark gray). Domestic horses gone wild, such as the mustangs of western North America , tend to revert to those primitive features under random mating: they generally are somewhat taller (about 15 hands), are usually gray, dun, or brownish in colour, and move in herds led by a stallion.The horses general form is characteristic of an animal of speed: the long leg bones pivot on pulleylike joints that restrict movement to the fore and aft, the limbs are levered to muscle masses in such a way as to provide the most efficient use of energy, and the compact body is supported permanently on the tips of the toes, allowing fuller extension of the limbs in running.The rounded skull houses a large and complex brain , well developed in those areas that direct muscle coordination. While the horse is intelligent among subhuman animals, it is safe to say that the horse is more concerned with the functioning of its acute sensory reception and its musculature than with mental processes. Though much has been written about educated horses that appear to exhibit an ability to spell and count, it is generally agreed that in such cases a very perceptive animal is responding to cues from its master. But this ability is remarkable enough in its own right, for the cues are often given unconsciously by the human trainer, and detection of such subtle signals requires extremely sharp perception.The horse, like other grazing herbivores, has typical adaptations for plant eating: a set of strong, highcrowned teeth , suited to grinding grasses and other harsh vegetation, and a relatively long digestive tract , most of which is intestine concerned with digesting cellulose matter from vegetation. Young horses have milk (or baby) teeth, which they begin to shed at about age two and a half. The permanent teeth, numbering 36 to 40, are completely developed by age four to five years. In the stallion these teeth are arranged as follows on the upper and lower jaws: 12 incisors that cut and pull at grasses 4 canines, remnants without function in the modern horse and usually not found in mares 12 premolars and 12 molars, high prisms that continue to grow out of the jaw in order to replace the surfaces worn off in grinding food.Teeth of a horse.Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.Under domestication the horse has diversified into three major types, based on size and build: draft horses, heavylimbed and up to 20 hands (200 cm, or 80 inches) high ponies , by convention horses under 14.2 hands (about 147 cm, or 58 inches) high and light horses the saddle or riding horseswhich fall in the intermediate size range. Domestic horses tend to be nearsighted, less hardy than their ancestors, and often highstrung, especially Thoroughbreds, where intensive breeding has been focused upon speed to the exclusion of other qualities. The stomach is relatively small, and, since much vegetation must be ingested to maintain vital processes, foraging is almost constant under natural conditions. Domestic animals are fed several (at least three) times a day in quantities governed by the exertion of the horse.SensesThe extremely large eyes placed far back on the elongated head admirably suit the horse for its chief mode of defense: flight. Its long neck and highset eyes, which register a much wider range than do the eyes of a human being , enable the horse to discern a possible threat even while eating low grasses. Like human vision , the horses vision is binocular, but only in the narrow area directly forward, and evidence suggests that it does not register colour. While visual acuity is high, the eyes do not have variable focus, and objects at different distances register only on different areas of the retina, which requires tilting movements of the head. The senses of smell and hearing seem to be keener than in human beings. As the biologist George Gaylord Simpson put it in Horses (1961):Legs for running and eyes for warning have enabled horses to survive through the ages, although subject to constant attack by flesh eaters that liked nothing better than horse for supper.Colour and patternFrom the dun of the primitive horse has sprung a variety of colours and patterns, some highly variable and difficult to distinguish. Among the most important colours are black, bay, chestnut (and sorrel), palomino, cream, and white.horse: coloursCommon horse colours: dappled gray (top left), dun (centre left), brown (bottom left), strawberry roan (top centre), chestnut (centre), skewbald (a type of pinto, bottom centre), palomino (top right), bay (centre right), black (bottom right).Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.The black colour is a true black, although a white face marking (blaze) and white ankles (stockings) may occur. The brown horse is almost black but has lighter areas around the muzzle, eyes, and legs. Bay refers to several shades of brown, from redbrown and tan to sandy. Bay horses have a black mane, tail, and (usually) stockings. There is a dilution (or lightening) gene called silver or silver dapplethat mainly influences the dark colours of the coat. Chestnut is similar to bay but with none of the bays black overtones. Lighter shades of chestnut are called sorrel. The palomino horse runs from cream to bronze, with a flaxen or silvery mane and tail. The cream is a diluted sorrel, or very pale yellow, nearly white. White in horses is variable, ranging from aging grays to albinos with blue eyes and pink skin and to pseudoalbinos with a buff mane or with brown eyes. The chief patterns of the white horse are gray, roan, pinto, sabino, and appaloosa. Gray horses are born dark brown or black and develop white hairs as they age, becoming almost all white in advanced years. Roan refers to white mixed with other colours at birth: blue roan is white mixed with black red roan is mixed white and bay and strawberry roan is white and chestnut. The pinto is almost any spotted pattern of white and another colour other names, such as paint, calico, piebald, skewbald, overo, and tobiano, refer to subtle distinctions in type of colour or pattern. Appaloosa (leopard complex) is another extremely variable pattern, but the term generally refers to a large white patch over the hips and loin, with scattered irregular dark spots.horse: facial markingsDifferent types of horse facial markings.Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.Morgan stallion with bay coat. Scott SmudskyArabian gelding with chestnut coat. Scott SmudskyPaso Fino gelding with palomino coat. Scott SmudskyAppaloosa mare with bay colouring. Scott SmudskyStudies of five coatcolour genes in DNA samples from ancient, predomesticated horses have shown that these horses predominantly carried the genes for black or bay. Scientists believe that it is very likely that these horses also carried the dun dilution gene. The leopard (Appaloosa) mutation was also discovered, which was found to be consistent with some cave paintings dating to 25,000 years ago that depict spotted horses. Mutations for chestnut, tobiano, and sabino were also observed and were dated to 3,000 years ago, whereas the buckskin variant had emerged by about 1,000 years ago. Most of the variation in coat colour appeared after domestication occurred and was likely the result of artificial selection by humans.NutritionThe horses natural food is grass. For stabled horses, the diet generally consists of hay and grain . The animal should not be fed immediately before or after work, to avoid digestive problems. Fresh water is important, especially when the horse is shedding its winter coat, but the animal should never be watered when it is overheated after working. Oats provide the greatest nutritional value and are given especially to foals. Older horses, whose teeth are worn down, or those with digestive troubles, can be provided with crushed oats. Chaff (minced straw ) can be added to the oat ration of animals that eat greedily or do not chew the grain properly. Crushed barley is sometimes substituted in part for oats. Hay provides the bulk of the horses ration and may be of varying composition according to locale. Mash is bran mixed with water and with various invigorating additions or medications. It may be given to horses with digestive troubles or deficient eating habits. Corn (maize) is used as a fattening cereal, but it makes the horse sweat easily. Salt is needed by the horse at all times and especially when shedding. Bread , carrots , and sugar are tidbits often used by the rider or trainer to reward an animal. In times of poverty, horses have adapted to all sorts of food potatoes , beans , green leaves, and in Iceland even fish but such foods are not generally taken if other fare is available. A number of commercial feed mixes are available to modern breeders and owners these mixes contain minerals, vitamins , and other nutrients and are designed to provide a balanced diet when supplemented with hay.BehaviourThe horses nervous system is highly developed and gives proof to varying degrees of the essential faculties that are the basis of intelligence: instinct , memory , and judgment. Foals, which stand on their feet a short while after birth and are able to follow their mothers within a few hours, even at this early stage in life exhibit the traits generally ascribed to horses. They have a tendency to flee danger. They express fear sometimes by showing panic and sometimes by immobility. Horses rarely attack and do so either when flight is impossible or when driven to assault a person who has treated them brutally.Habit governs a large number of their reactions. Instinct, together with a fine sense of smell and hearing, enables them to sense water, fire, even distant danger. An extremely welldeveloped sense of direction permits the horse to find its way back to its stables even at night or after a prolonged absence. The visual memory of the horse prompts it to shy repeatedly from an object or place where it had earlier experienced fear. The animals auditory memory, which enabled ancient army horses or hunters to follow the sounds of the bugles, is used in training. When teaching, the instructor always uses the same words and the same tone of voice for a given desired reaction. Intelligent horses soon attach certain movements desired by their trainers to particular sounds and even try to anticipate their riders wishes.While instinct is an unconscious reaction more or less present in all individuals of the same species, the degree of its expression varies according to the individual and its development. Most horses can sense a riders uncertainty, nervousness, or fear and are thereby encouraged to disregard or even deliberately disobey the rider. Highbred animals, which give evidence of greater intelligence than those of low breeding, are capable of not only acts of vengeance and jealousy against their riders but also expressions of confidence, obedience, affection, and fidelity . They are less willing than a lowbred horse to suffer rough handling or unjust treatment.Cunning animals have been known to employ their intelligence and physical skill to a determined end, such as opening the latch of a stall or the lid of a chest of oats.Reproduction and developmentThe onset of adult sex characteristics generally begins at the age of 16 to 18 months. The horse is considered mature, depending on the breed, at approximately three years and adult at five. Fecundity varies according to the breed and may last beyond age 20 with Thoroughbreds and to 12 or 15 with other horses. The gestation period is 11 months 280 days is the minimum in which the foal can be born with expectation to live. As a rule, a mare produces one foal per mating, twins occasionally, and triplets rarely. The foal is weaned at six months.The useful life of a horse varies according to the amount of work it is required to do and the maintenance furnished by its owner. A horse that is trained carefully and slowly and is given the necessary time for development may be expected to serve to an older age than a horse that is rushed in its training. Racehorses that enter into races at the age of two rarely remain on the turf beyond eight. Wellkept riding horses, on the contrary, may be used more than 20 years.The life span of a horse is calculated at six to seven times the time necessary for its physical and mental developmentthat is, 30 to 35 years at the utmost, the rule being about 20 to 25 years. Ponies generally live longer than larger horses. There are a number of examples of horses that have passed the usual limit of age. The veterinary university of Vienna conserves the skeleton of a Thoroughbred mare of 44 years of age. There have been reports made of horses living to their early 60s in age.Diseases and parasitesHorses are subjected to a number of contagious diseases , such as influenza , strangles , glanders , equine encephalomyelitis , and swamp fever . Their skin is affected by parasites, including certain mites , ticks , and lice . Those with sensitive skin are especially subject to eczemas and abscesses , which may result from neglect or contamination. Sores caused by injuries to the skin from illfitting or unclean saddles and bridles are common ailments. The horses digestive tract is particularly sensitive to spoiled feed, which causes acute or chronic indigestion, especially in hot weather. Worms can develop in the intestine and include the larvae of the botfly, pinworms , tapeworms , and roundworms (ascarids). Overwork and neglect may predispose the horse to pneumonia and rheumatism . The ailment known as roaring is an infection of the larynx that makes the horse inhale noisily a milder form causes the horse to whistle. Chronic asthma , or broken wind, is an ailment that is considered to be all but incurable. A horses legs and feet are sensitive to blows, sprains, and overwork, especially if the horse is young or is worked on hard surfaces. Lameness may be caused by bony growths, such as splints, spavins, and ringbones, by softtissue enlargements, known as windgalls, thoroughpins, and shoe boils, and by injury to the hooves, including sand crack, split hoof, tread thrush, and acute or chronic laminitis.Breeds of horsesThe first intensively domesticated horses were developed in Central Asia . They were small, lightweight, and stocky. In time, two general groups of horses emerged: the southerly ArabBarb types (from the Barbary coast) and the northerly, socalled coldblooded types. When, where, and how these horses appeared is disputed. Nevertheless, all modern breedsthe light, fast, spirited breeds typified by the modern Arabian , the heavier, slower, and calmer working breeds typified by the Belgian , and the intermediate breeds typified by the Thoroughbred may be classified according to where they originated (e.g., Percheron , Clydesdale , and Arabian), by the principal use of the horse (riding, draft, coach horse), and by their outward appearance and size (light, heavy, pony ).ArabianIts long history is obscured by legend , but the Arabian breed, prized for its stamina, intelligence, and character, is known to have been developed in Arabia by the 7th century ce. It is a compact horse with a small head, protruding eyes, wide nostrils, marked withers, and a short back. It usually has only 23 vertebrae, while 24 is the usual number for other breeds. (Variation in vertebrae number is found in a wide diversity of breeds.) Its legs are strong with fine hooves. The coat, tail, and mane are of fine silky hair. While many colours are possible in the breed, gray prevails. The mostfamous stud farm is in the region of Najd, Saudi Arabia , but many fine Arabian horses are bred in the United States.ThoroughbredThe history of the English Thoroughbred is a long one. Records indicate that a stock of Arab and Barb horses was introduced into England as early as the 3rd century. Conditions of climate, soil, and water favoured development, and selective breeding was long encouraged by those interested in racing. Under the reigns of James I and Charles I, 43 mares, the Royal Mares, were imported into England, and a record, the General Stud Book , was begun in which are inscribed only those horses that may be traced back to the Royal Mares in direct line or to only three other horses imported to Englandthe Byerly Turk (imported in 1689), the Darley Arabian (after 1700), and the Godolphin Barb (also known as the Godolphin Arabian, imported about 1730). The English Thoroughbred has since been introduced to most countries, where it is bred for racing or used to improve local breeds. The Thoroughbred has a small fine head, a deep chest, and a straight back. Its legs have short bones that allow a long easy stride, and its coat is generally bay or chestnut, rarely black or gray.horseThoroughbred stallion with dark bay coat. Scott SmudskyAsianAsian breeds were strongly influenced by Arabian or Persian breeds, which together with the horses of the steppes produced small plainlooking horses of great intelligence and endurance. Among them are the Turkoman, AkhalTeke, Tartar, Kirghis, Mongol , and Cossack horses. A Persian stallion and a Dutch mare produced the Orlov trotter in 1778, named after Count Orlov, the owner of the stud farm where the mating took place.AngloArabThe AngloArab breed originated in France with a crossing of English Thoroughbreds with pure Arabians. The matings produced a horse larger than the Arabian and smaller than the Thoroughbred, of easy maintenance, and capable of carrying considerable weight in the saddle. Its coat is generally chestnut or bay.American breedsThe Standardbred , a breed that excels at the pace and trot, ranks as one of the worlds finest harness racers. A powerful longbodied horse, the Standardbred was developed during the first half of the 19th century and can be traced largely to the sire Messenger , a Thoroughbred imported from Britain in 1788 and mated to various brood mares in New York, New Jersey , and Pennsylvania.American Paint Horse mare of bay colouring. Scott SmudskyThe American Quarter Horse was bred for races of a quarter of a mile and is said to descend from Janus, a small Thoroughbred stallion imported into Virginia toward the end of the 18th century. It is 14.2 to 16 hands high, with sturdily muscled hindquarters, essential for the fast departure required in short races. It serves as a polo pony equally well as for ranch work.American Quarter Horse stallion with buckskin coat. Scott SmudskyThe Morgan horse originated from a stallion given to Justin Morgan of Vermont around 1795. This breed has become a most versatile horse for riding, pulling carriages, farm labour, and cattle cutting. It was the ideal army charger. It stands about 15 hands high and is robust , goodnatured, willing, and intelligent. Its coat is dark brown or liver chestnut.Appaloosa is a colour breed (see above) said to have descended in the Nez Perc Indian territory of North America from wild mustangs, which in turn descended from Spanish horses brought to the New World by explorers. The Appaloosa is 14.2 to 15.2 hands high, of sturdy build and of most diverse use it is especially good in farmwork. There are various breeds of spotted horses in Europe and Asia, and the actual source of the spotting pattern in the Appaloosa is uncertain.American breeders have also developed several horses that have specialized gaits. These gaited breeds include the American Saddlebred horse , the Tennessee Walking Horse , and the Missouri Fox Trotting Horse . The American Saddlebred horse has a small head and spectacular highstepping movements. It is trained for either three or five gaits. The threegaited horses perform the walk, trot, and canter the fivegaited horses in addition perform the rack, a quick, highstepping fourbeat gait, and the slow gait, a somewhat slower form of the rack. Since these horses are used mainly for shows, their hooves are kept rather long, and the muscles of the tail are often clipped so that the base of the tail is carried high. Chestnut and bay are the usual colours. The Tennessee Walking Horse a breed derived partially from the Thoroughbred, Standardbred, Morgan, and American Saddlebred horseserves as a comfortable riding mount used to cover great distances at considerable speed. Its specialty is the running walk, a long and swift stride. Bay is the most common colour. The Missouri Fox Trotting Horse , a breed developed to cover the rough terrain of the Ozark region, is characterized by an unusual gait, called the foxtrot, in which the front legs move at a walk while the hind legs perform a trot. The most common colours for this breed are sorrel and chestnut sorrel.American Saddlebred mare with black coat. Scott SmudskyTennessee Walking Horse stallion with dapplegray coat. Scott SmudskyMissouri Fox Trotting mare with black coat. Scott SmudskyOther light breedsThe English Hackney is a light carriage horse, influenced by the Thoroughbred and capable of covering distances of 12 to 15 miles (19 to 24 km) per hour at the trot and canter. It measures 15.2 to 15.3 hands high and is appreciated for its high knee action.Hackney horse performing its typical highstepping trot during a driving competition. Sally Anne ThompsonAnimal PhotographyThe Cleveland Bay carriage horse, up to 17 hands high and generally bay in colour, is similar to the Yorkshire Coach horse. Both breeds are now used for the sport of driving.Other versatile breeds include the German Holstein, Hanoverian, and East Prussian (Trakehner), which serve equally well for riding, light labour, and carriage. These horses, 16 to 18 hands high and of all colours, are now mostly bred for sport.Hanoverian stallion with dark bay coat. Scott SmudskyTrakehner stallion with dark bay coat. Scott SmudskyThe Andalusian, a highstepping spirited horse, and the small but enduring Barb produced the Lipizzaner , which was named after the stud farm founded near Trieste, Italy, in 1580. Originally of all colours, the Lipizzaner is gray or, now exceptionally, bay. It is small, rarely over 15 hands high, of powerful build but with slender legs and with a long silky mane and tail. Intelligence and sweetness of disposition as well as gracefulness destined it for academic horsemanship, notably as practiced at the Spanish Riding School of Vienna .Andalusian stallion with dark gray coat. Scott SmudskyHeavy breedsThe horses used for heavy loads and farm labour descended from the ancient war horses of the Middle Ages. These breedsincluding the English Shire (the worlds largest horse), Suffolk , and Clydesdale the French Percheron the Belgian horse the German Noriker and the Austrian Pinzgauerare now little used for their original purpose, having been almost entirely replaced by the tractor. They usually measure well over 16 hands high, some more than 19 hands. They are of all colours, sometimes spotted, and generally have a very calm temperament. Many of these breeds are rare and endangered at present.PoniesPonies are any horses other than Arabians that are shorter than 14.2 hands. They are generally very sturdy, intelligent, energetic, and sometimes stubborn. The coat is of all colours, mainly dark, and the mane and tail are full. Ponies are used for pulling carriages and pack loads and as childrens riding horses or pets. There are numerous varieties, including the Welsh, Dartmoor , Exmoor, Connemara , New Forest , Highland, Dale, Fell, Pony of the Americas, Shetland (under seven hands high), Iceland, and Norwegian. Ponies of the warmer countries include the Indian, Java, Manila, and Argentina.An Icelandic horse moving swiftly at the tlt, a smooth fourbeat, lateral running walk. Pall StefanssonIceland ReviewOriginating in the South Tyrol, the Haflinger is a mountain pony, enduring, robust, and versatile, used for all farm labour, for pulling a carriage or sledge, and for pack hauling. It is chestnut with a flaxen mane and tail.A team of Haflingers at a driving demonstration Bob LangrishSome breeds of ponies, such as the Caspian, are short but have the body proportions of a horse instead of the shorter legs relative to body size of the true ponies of northern Europe.
LinksHorses for SaleOne of Brians talents is the ability to match the right horse with the right rider. His time and vast experience in the reining horse industry has allowed him to make connections not just all over the country but around the world. Brian works hard to keep up on the whereabouts of horses, who has what horse for sell, and diamonds in the rough that he likes to keep track of. If he does not have the right horse for you, he knows where to find it. Many people send Brian horses to sell for them, and a few he keeps on hand waiting for the right owner. For these horses, he uses the website ReinerStop.com . ReinerStop.com has done the hard work for the prospective buyer. The site only allows trainers that have already met high criteria and provided their information in an easy to use format. As a prospective buyer you can see a listed horses pedigree, pictures, video, and price. The ability to search through the database of horses and trainers in a quick easy manner makes it easy for you, the buyer. As a trainer and seller, we appreciate the opportunity to give all the information regarding a single horse in one spot. The feedback we have received from our customers reassures us that we have made the right decision to trust ReinerStop with helping us sell our horses.Pages
Is glue still made from horses?iStockphotoTwo horses that stumbled while filming racing sequences for the first and seventh episodes of HBOs Luck were deemed inoperable and euthanized. Dead and dying horses are often said to be sent to the glue factory. Why are horses good for making glue?Forrest WickmanForrest Wickman is Slates culture editor.They have a lot of collagen. Collagen is a key protein in connective tissues (cartilage, tendons, ligaments) as well as hides and bones. Its also the key ingredient in most animal glues, as it can be made into a gelatin thats sticky when wet but hardens when it dries. The word collagen actually derives from the Greek kolla, meaning glue, and the suffix gen, meaning producer. As large, muscled animals, horses contain lots of this glue producer. Horse glue isnt generally better or stickier than any other kind of animal glueindeed, an elephant could be used to make even more glue than a horseand animal glue is more often made from pigs and cattle.AdvertisementHumans have used animals to make glue for thousands of years. The oldest glue discovered was a collagenbased adhesive that was 8,000 years old and used to hold utensils together. It wasnt long before these animal glues were used to repair broken pots and, in one instance, glue ivory eyeballs into statues eye sockets . Other adhesives were made from egg whites, tree sap, tar, and beeswax, which the ancient Romans used to caulk the planking in ships. In the middle ages, the mysterious author Theophilus compiled instructions for producing various types of glue, including glue made of skins and staghorns , glue made from fish bladders (now called isinglass), and the glue of cheese (now called casein glue). For fish glue, Theophilus recommended the bladder of the sturgeon, but alternatives included eel skin and the bones of the head of the wolf fish. The first commercial glue factory, started in Holland in the early 18th century, used animal hides. Glue made from blood , which worked because of bloods coagulative properties, worked particularly well when bonding plywood, and was commonly used for this purpose until the mid20th century.Animal glue, popular for thousands of years, has fallen out of fashion in recent decades. Over the second half of the 20th century, synthetic glues have become more advanced, as they are cheap, uniform in quality, and have longer shelf lives. White alluse glues like Elmers are made of rubbery mixtures called polyvinyl acetate emulsions , and while the Elmers mascot is a smiling bull , the company says that it doesnt use any animal parts. Some manufacturers still distribute animal glues. Bookbinders are fond of them because theyre slow to set, allowing binders plenty of time to work. But those manufacturers represent only a small portion of the hundreds of companies that make up the multibillion dollar industry .These days, dead and unwanted horses arent sent to the glue factory as often they are sent across the border, slaughtered, and harvested for their valuable meat. (The United States longtime ban on slaughtering horses for human consumption was lifted this past fall , but the practice remains taboo.) Other horses are rendered into meat for greyhounds and food for large cats at zoos. Hippophiles might cremate favorite horsesin some states its illegal to bury themwhile others simply take the horse to the local dump.Got a question about todays news? Ask the Explainer .Explainer thanks Jerrold Winandy of the University of Minnesota.Correction, Feb. 15, 2012: This article originally and mistakenly stated that slaughtering horses for human consumption is illegal in the United States. The ban on slaughtering horses for this purpose was lifted this past fall. ( Return to the corrected sentence.)
Long Island man, 30, is charged with repeated having sex with HORSES four years after he raped a dog and beat her to death with a baseball batSteven Errante charged with two counts of sexual misconduct with an animalHe was arrested in Dix Hills, New York, when police came to investigate his failure to register as an animalabuserErrante, a US Army veteran, is suspected of having sex with horses in August and SeptemberIncident comes four years after he was arrested for having sex with a RottweilerLabrador mix dubbed Beauty and then beating her to death
BSPA FESTIVAL OF SHOWING WINTER CHAMPIONSHIPS SATURDAY 25TH MARCHResultsOrder Form For Covering CertificatesBritish Skewbald and Piebald AssociationPASSPORT NEWS::PASSPORT APPLICATIONS 2016From January 1st 2016 new Passport Regulations come into force..ALL new application forms and Guidance notes are available from the BSPA office BSPA Stanley House. Silt Drove, Tippsend, nr Welney. Cambs. PE14 9SL, whilst this page is reconstructed..The Regulations require thatt ALLLhorses will be classified as for Breeding Production (unknown or unregistered breeding) OR Registered Horses i.e. those eligible for either entry into the BSPA Studbook or the Verified breeding registerrApplicants are still required to have a sketch sheet completed by a Vet and to be microchipped. Bar code sticker to be sent with applicationnALL Applications dated 31122015 or earlier will be accepted using existing Application forms and vet sketch sheets..Under the new Regulations any equine born during 2015 but without any passport (or 2015 application prior to 3112)) WILL henceforthhonly be eligible for a Replacement passport. Whether or not one exists already, and the equine automatically signed out of the Human Food ChainnDuplicate Passportss, applications for a duplicatee WILLLnow be required to have a new Sketch sheet completed by a Vet..For full details of these regulations, please refer to the EU Official Journal of the European Union L59. The English edition is downloadable from thiss BSPA Websitee or from DEFRA att www.gov.ukdefraaALL Passportssissued in 2015 or other years remain valid and legallYou are reminded of your legal duty to register any ownership changes under Passport Regulations..ALL passportssissued prior to year 2000 will need to be returned to BSPA (see previous notices re Passport recall) for updating and or reissuing as applicableeBSPA Registrarr301220155OWNERSHIP CHANGES::If you have purchased a horsepony with a BSPA Passport document and have not yet returned the document to BSPA for ownership change processing then youu MUSTTdo so immediately or within 30 days of purchase.. Not to do so is an offenceunder E.U. Passport Legislation (Commission Regulation 5042008)..If the above applies then you MUSTreturn the passport to BSPA with your full details and date of purchase so that we can transfer the equine into your name thus ensuring accurate keeper details is maintained.. Transfer of Ownershipforms are at the back of a BSPA Passport for this use. If they have been removed then your details and a copy of the bill of sale will suffice.. We reserve the right at our discretion to contact the last recorded owner to ensure the equine left them under bonefide circumstances..Current fees for ownership changes incl. return by 2nd class recorded delivery mail is 24.00PLEASE BE ADVISED THAT BSPA IS REQUIRED BY DEFRA TO REPORT ALL SUCH LATE ADVISORY NOTIFICATIONS TO OUR LOCAL TRADING STANDARDS WHO HOLD PASSPORT REGULATION ENFORCEMENT POWERS..If any of the above circumstances apply to you, please act immediately to ensure your document is brought up to date..If you are unsure please call the BSPA Telephone advice line between 103pm TuesdayFriday incl..We are here to help..BSPA :: British Skewbald and Piebald Association :: BSPA, Stanley House, Silt Drove Tipps End, Welney, Wisbech, Cambs, PE14 9SLL
ContactAvailable HorsesOur horses range in age and ability from young and competitive sporthorses, to older quiet trailmounts! Some of our horses have special needs, but most just had an unfortunate run of bad luck and need a new chance at a loving home. Our efforts are supported solely by donations , adoption fees, and LOTS of volunteer sweat.Horses of all ages and abilities are available for adoption. Our horses are categorized as appropriate for beginner riders , intermediate riders ,and advanced riders .We also have several horses that are not rideable, but would be great companion horses .All of the horses listed below are currently available for adoption and are shown by appointment only. Please click here to schedule an appointment to meet one of our amazing horses!Adoptions are strictly limited to a 4 hour radius of our location, as determined by GPS address to address.Beginner Rider Horses Available for AdoptionUse the arrows to scroll through all the available beginner rider horses