Видео и фото

How to have sex in india

How to have sex in india

How to have sex in india

Sex Advice: 37yearold married woman worried about hormonal imbalance due to using female condomsPosted on October 21, 2017 12:45 PM, Filed under Sex adviceQuestion. I am a 37yearold married woman. I have two daughters, one is 13 and other is six years old. For the first 10 years of marriage, I used copper T as a means of contraception. But in the last two years, we have relied on female condoms. I have had a regular menstruation cycle. But since March 2017, Ive missed by period twice. The pregnancy test came negative. The doctor says that since Ive used female condoms over duration, it has led to hormonal imbalance. The doctor also advised I stop using those condoms and wait for a month to check if my condition improves. She hasnt prescribed medication at the moment. What could be the problem?Answer. I agree with your doctors advice. Get yourself checked again after a month of avoiding condoms. You may reconsider copper T after studying the latest ones available and that may be the best solution.Posted by admin on October 21, 2017 12:45 PM Comments (0)HumanDigest: Erotic story of the dayPosted on October 21, 2017 12:30 PM, Filed under GeneralFacing away her lovely ass was moving towards her house and suddenly she turned back to see my house and caught me looking at her. Ignoring her I wanted to go in instantly but just then Bhabhi waved her hand and unintentionally I responded back same way. Ultimately she went into her house and I came back to bed to day dream about being on bed with her. 510 minutes passed, I was not intended to masturbate again but moving back and forward slowly my cock was in my hands.

More in Business Management Buy Books Online at Rediff.comOur worldly companions desert us but books are our never failing friendsBooks motivate, enlighten, educate and entertain. You are neveralone if you read, they are your best companion in solitude. Rediff Books brings you a vast collection of books with every taste and needs.Rediff Books The Largest Online Book Store to purchase books online, where you can search over 3.5 million books from Indian and international authors. We have stocked every new title under various genres with an endless array of enduring classics. Find the most popular titles or simply browse books online through their wide categories such as Advertising, Weight loss , Sports, Science Fiction , Food and wine , Computers and Technology, Business , Graphic Novels, Comics, Law Books, Craft Hobbies, Teen Fiction, Entrance Exam Preparation , Humor, Parenting, Travel, Astrology from various categories from the best Indian Book Sellers. Rediff aggregates offer from sellers, to bring you a high quality online collection of books at great prices.If you are very passionate about reading books or novels? You must like to order books online. Rediff offers a true bookstore ambience as you can explore through the large list of the most popular books online and can also order books online at the comfort of your home. Today, there are a number of good book stores online. Each has own strong points and uniqueness. You may find one book at one store while some other stores may run out of stock or may simply never listed ever. Moreover, pricing and discounts on the books also vary from one place to another. Rediff Books is the real one stop online bookstore that has eased this searching process. You start your searches here save time, money and select your choicest title most easily from the comfort of your home.Ordering Shopping Send As GiftYou can also Send As Gift to Another Address (mention the address) or else Send to the above (own) address and complete the shopping process by clicking complete your order. You can either pay through your Credit Card or avail the facility of free shipping and Cash On Delivery anywhere in India.

Austria edit After the decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) of 9 November 2017, Austrian media report that a similar case is also pending at the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) in Austria. Two lower judicial instances already decided against the possibility of a third gender. Each year at least 35 children in Austria are reported to be born with ambiguous sex characteristics. Surgical interventions on intersex children, to make them fit one of the binary sex characteristics, are criticized by Verein Intergeschlechtliche Menschen sterreich (VIM), an Austrian association fighting for the rights of intersex people. They demand that children should be free to decide on these matters when they are grown up. Johannes Wahala, president of the Austrian Society For Sexologies and head of Beratungsstelle Courage advice center in Graz condemns these operations and wishes for the introduction of a third gender. 65Further information: Intersex rights in Australia and Transgender rights in AustraliaFirst reported in January 2003, Australians can choose X as their gender or sex. Alex MacFarlane is believed to be the first person in Australia to obtain a birth certificate recording sex as indeterminate, and the first Australian passport with an X sex marker in 2003. 25 66 67 67 68 69 This was stated by the West Australian newspaper to be on the basis of a challenge by MacFarlane, using an indeterminate birth certificate issued by the State of Victoria. Other individuals known to have similar early options include Tony Briffa of Organisation Intersex International Australia and former mayor of City of Hobsons Bay , Victoria , previously acknowledged as the worlds first openly intersex public official and mayor. 70 71 72Government policy between 2003 and 2011 was to issue passports with an X marker to persons who could present a birth certificate that notes their sex as indeterminate. 69 73 In 2011, the Australian Passport Office introduced new guidelines for issuing of passports with a new gender, and broadened availability of an X descriptor to all individuals with documented indeterminate sex. 74 75 The revised policy stated that sex reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite to issue a passport in a new gender. Birth or citizenship certificates do not need to be amended. 76Australian Commonwealth guidelines on the recognition of sex and gender, published in June 2013, extended the use of an X gender marker to any adult who chooses that option, in all dealings with the Commonwealth government and its agencies. The option is being introduced over a threeyear period. The guidelines also clarify that the federal government collects data on gender , rather than sex . 77 In March 2014, the Australian Capital Territory introduced an X classification for birth certificates. 78Norrie MayWelby is popularly but erroneously often regarded as the first person in the world to obtain officially indeterminate, unspecified or genderless status. 43 44 79 MayWelby became the first transsexual person in Australia to pursue a legal status of neither a man nor a woman, in 2010. 43 44 80 81 In April 2014, the High Court of Australia ruled that NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages must record in the register that the sex of MayWelby is nonspecific. 82 The Court found that sex affirmation surgery did not resolve her sexual ambiguity. 83An alliance of organizations including the National LGBTI Health Alliance , Organisation Intersex International Australia and Transgender Victoria has called for X to be redefined as nonbinary. 84In March 2017, an Australian and AotearoaNew Zealand community statement called for an end to legal classification of sex, stating that legal third classifications, like binary classifications, were based on structural violence and failed to respect diversity and a right to selfdetermination. 36 37Canada edit In June 2016, the government of the province of Ontario announced changes to the way gender will be displayed on health cards and drivers licenses. Starting June 13, the Ontario health card no longer displays a sex designation. In early 2017, Ontario drivers will have the option to display X as a gender identifier on their drivers licenses. 85In April 2017, a baby born in British Columbia , Searyl Atli Dotl, became the first in the world known to be issued a health card with a genderneutral U sex marker. The parent, Kori Doty, who is nonbinary transgender , wanted to give their child the opportunity to discover their own gender identity . 86 87 The province has refused to issue a birth certificate to the child without specifying a gender Doty has filed a legal challenge. 87 88 Doty and seven other transgender and intersex people have filed a human rights complaint against the province, alleging that publishing gender markers on birth certificates is discriminatory. 88In July 2017, the Northwest Territories began allowing X as a nonbinary option on birth certificates. 89On August 31, 2017, Canada began allowing an observation to be added to passports requesting that the holders gender should be read as X, indicating that it is unspecified, though a gender of M or F had to be added as a gender for an undefined period to comply with legal requirements of other countries. 90 91 92Further information: Intersex rights in Germany and LGBT rights in GermanyGermany is thought to be the first European country that recognizes indeterminate sex on birth certificates, which is materialized by the absence of any gender marker, from November 2013. A report by the German Ethics Council stated that the law was passed because, Many people who were subjected to a normalizing operation in their childhood have later felt it to have been a mutilation and would never have agreed to it as adults. 93 Deutsche Welle reported that an indeterminate option was made available for the birth certificates of intersex infants with ambiguous genitalia on 1 November 2013. 93 The move is controversial with many intersex advocates in Germany and elsewhere suggesting that it might encourage surgical interventions, or simply fails to address the key health concerns of intersex people. 93 94 95 96 On 21 January 2015, the Celle Court of Appeals confirmed in a judgment 97 that intersex people cannot obtain a gender marker other than female or male in their birth certificate, but only the absence of any such marker. The court held at the same time that even an adult intersex person who was registered with a gender marker at birth can obtain the deletion of that gender marker. This judgment was sent for review by the Federal Court of Justice . 98On 8 November 2017, the Federal Constitutional Court released a press statement about its ruling from 10 October 2017, which is in favor of a positive third gender option instead of no entry. 99 The ruling demands a third gender option to be introduced by 31 December 2018. It decisively points out that a third gender option must be based on gender identity, rather than biological sex, to be in conformance with the general right of personality of German basic law (Grundgesetz). They also recommend that it should be a single option besides male and female, which should include all gender identities that are neither male nor female. The exact wording is still to be determined, divers being one possible option that is mentioned, but this choice is left to the legislator. 100See also: Transgender rights in Tamil NaduAravanisthe Hijra brides of Aravan mourn his deathThe Hijra of India are probably the most well known and populous third sex type in the modern world Mumbai based community health organization The Humsafar Trust estimates there are between 5 and 6 million hijras in India. In different areas they are known as AravaniAruvani or Jogappa. Often (somewhat misleadingly) called eunuchs in English , they may be born intersex or apparently male , dress in feminine clothes and generally see themselves as neither men nor women. Only eight percent of hijras visiting Humsafar clinics are nirwaan ( castrated ). Indian photographer Dayanita Singh writes about her friendship with a Hijra, Mona Ahmed, and their two different societies beliefs about gender: When I once asked her if she would like to go to Singapore for a sex change operation , she told me, You really do not understand. I am the third sex, not a man trying to be a woman. It is your societys problem that you only recognize two sexes. 101 Hijra social movements have campaigned for recognition as a third sex, 102 and in 2005, Indian passport application forms were updated with three gender options: M, F, and E (for male, female, and eunuch, respectively). 103 Some Indian languages such as Sanskrit have three gender options.In November 2009, India agreed to list eunuchs and transgender people as others, distinct from males and females, in voting rolls and voter identity cards. 104 On April 15, 2014, the Supreme Court of India recognized a third gender that is neither male nor female, and as a class entitled to reservation in education and jobs, stating Recognition of transgenders as a third gender is not a social or medical issue but a human rights issue. This verdict made India one of the few countries to give this landmark judgment. 105 106In addition to the feminine role of hijras , which is widespread across the subcontinent , a few occurrences of institutionalized female masculinity have been noted in modern India. Among the Gaddhi in the foothills of the Himalayas , some girls adopt a role as a sadhin, renouncing marriage, and dressing and working as men, but retaining female names and pronouns. 107 A latenineteenth century anthropologist noted the existence of a similar role in Madras , that of the basivi. 108 However, historian Walter Penrose concludes that in both cases their status is perhaps more transgendered than thirdgendered. 109In April 2014, Justice KS Radhakrishnan, of Supreme Court of India declared transgender to be the third gender in Indian law, in a case brought by the National Legal Services Authority (Nalsa) against Union of India and others . 110 111 112 The ruling said: 113Seldom, our society realizes or cares to realize the trauma, agony and pain which the members of Transgender community undergo, nor appreciates the innate feelings of the members of the Transgender community, especially of those whose mind and body disown their biological sex. Our society often ridicules and abuses the Transgender community and in public places like railway stations, bus stands, schools, workplaces, malls, theatres, hospitals, they are sidelined and treated as untouchables, forgetting the fact that the moral failure lies in the societys unwillingness to contain or embrace different gender identities and expressions, a mindset which we have to change.Justice Radhakrishnan said that transgender people should be treated consistently with other minorities under the law, enabling them to access jobs, healthcare and education. 114 He framed the issue as one of human rights, saying that, These TGs, even though insignificant in numbers, are still human beings and therefore they have every right to enjoy their human rights, concluding by declaring that:Hijras , Eunuchs , apart from binary gender, be treated as third gender for the purpose of safeguarding their rights under Part III of our Constitution and the laws made by the Parliament and the State Legislature.Transgender persons right to decide their selfidentified gender is also upheld and the Centre and State Governments are directed to grant legal recognition of their gender identity such as male, female or as third gender. 113See also: LGBT rights in NepalOn December 27, 2007, the Supreme Court of Nepal issued a decision mandating that the government scrap all laws that discriminated based on sexual orientation andor gender identity and establish a committee to study samesex marriage policy. 115 The court also established a thirdgender category. 115 Nepalese official documents afford citizens three gender options: male, female, and others. 115 This may include people who present or perform as a gender that is different from the one that was assigned to them at birth. 115 Nepals 2011 census was the first national census in the world to allow people to register as a gender other than male or female. 115 The 2007 supreme court decision ordered the government to issue citizenship ID cards that allowed thirdgender or other to be listed. 115 The court also ordered that the only requirements to identify as thirdgender would be the persons own selfidentification.Legal provisions should be made to provide for gender identity to the people of transgender or third gender, under which female third gender, male third gender and intersexual are grouped, as per the concerned persons selffeeling 116 More recent material indicates that this third option is not available to intersex persons. 117Further information: Intersex rights in New Zealand and Transgender rights in New ZealandBirth certificates are available at birth showing indeterminate sex if it is not possible to assign a sex. The New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs states, A persons sex can be recorded as indeterminate at the time of birth if it cannot be ascertained that the person is either male or female, and there are a number of people so recorded. 118Passports are available from December 2012 with an X sex descriptor, where X means indeterminateunspecified. 119 120 These were originally introduced for people transitioning gender. 121On 17 July 2015, Statistics New Zealand introduced a new gender identity classification standard for statistical purposes. The classification has three categories: male, female, and gender diverse. Gender diverse can be further divided into four subcategories: gender diverse not further defined, transgender male to female, transgender female to male, and gender diverse not elsewhere classified. 122 123In March 2017, a AotearoaNew Zealand and Australian community statement called for an end to legal classification of sex, stating that legal third classifications, like binary classifications, were based on structural violence and failed to respect diversity and a right to selfdetermination. 36 37Main article: Hijra (South Asia)In Pakistan , the polite term is khwaja sara or khwaja sira ( Urdu : ), as hijra and khusra are considered derogatory by the khawaja sara community and human rights activists in Pakistan. 124 125 As most of Pakistans official government and business documents are in English, the term third gender has been chosen to represent individuals (either male or female, neither, andor both) that identify themselves as, transsexual , transgender person , crossdresser (zenana in Urdu ), transvestite , and eunuchs (narnbans in Urdu). 126 127In June 2009, the Supreme Court of Pakistan ordered a census of khawaja sara , who number between 80,000 128 and 300,000 in Pakistan. 129 In December 2009, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry , the Chief Justice of Pakistan , ordered that the National Database and Registration Authority 128 issue national identity cards to members of the community showing their distinct gender. 129 130 Its the first time in the 62year history of Pakistan that such steps are being taken for our welfare, Almas Bobby, a khawaja sara associations president, said to Reuters, Its a major step towards giving us respect and identity in society. We are slowly getting respect in society. Now people recognize that we are also human beings. 129Main article: LGBT rights in the PhilippinesThe Philippines is ranked as one of the most gayfriendly nations in the world, and the most LGBT friendly in Asia . 131 The country ranked as the 10th most gayfriendly in a global survey covering 39 countries, in which only 17 had majorities accepting homosexuality . A 2013 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed that 73 of adult Filipinos agreed with the statement that homosexuality should be accepted by society, up by nine percentage points from 64 percent in 2002. 131The LGBT community remains as one of the countrys minority sectors today. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people often face disadvantages in getting hired for jobs, acquiring rights for civil marriage , and even in starting up personal businesses. According to an international research, 10 of the worlds population are theoretically part of the LGBT community, out or not, including 12 million Filipinos that may experience discrimination based on who they are. This has led to the rise of the cause for LGBT rights , defined as the right to equality and nondiscrimination. 132 As a member of the United Nations , the Philippines is signatory to various international covenants promoting human rights . 133Thailand edit Nong Tum , a transgender Muay Thai boxerAlso commonly referred to as a third sex are the kathoeys (or ladyboys) of Thailand . 134 These are people whose assigned sex was male who identify and live as female. A significant number of Thais perceive kathoeys as belonging to a third gender, including many kathoeys themselves others see them as second category women. 135 Although they are born genetically as male, kathoeys claim to possess a female heart which is the gender they truly are. Males undergoing sexchange operations are not uncommon occurrences but they are still regarded as men on their identification documents. Despite this, the Thai society remains one of the worlds most tolerant attitude towards kathoeys or the third gender. 136 Researcher Sam Winter writes:We asked our 190 kathoeys to say whether they thought of themselves as men, women, sao praphet song a second kind of woman or kathoey. None thought of themselves as male, and only 11 percent saw themselves as kathoey (i.e. nonmale). By contrast 45 percent thought of themselves as women, with another 36 percent as sao praphet song...Unfortunately we did not include the category phet tee sam (third sexgender) conceivably if we had done so there may have been many respondents who would have chosen that term... Around 50 percent of nontransgender Thais see them as males with the mistaken minds, but the other half see them as either women born into the wrong body (around 15 percent) or as a third sexgender (35 percent). 135In 2004, the Chiang Mai Technology School allocated a separate restroom for kathoeys, with an intertwined male and female symbol on the door. The 15 kathoey students are required to wear male clothing at school but are allowed to sport feminine hairdos. The restroom features four stalls, but no urinals. 137Although Kathoeys are still not fully respected, they are gradually gaining acceptance and have made themselves a very distinct part of the Thai society. This is especially true in the entertainment, business, and fashion industries in Thailand, where the Kathoeys play significant roles in leadership and management positions. In addition, Kathoeys or secondcategorywomen are very sought after when businesses are hiring salespeople. In many job posts, it is common to see companies state that secondcategorywomen are preferred as their sales force because they are generally seen as more charismatic and expressive individuals. 138Further information: Intersex rights in the United Kingdom and Transgender rights in the United KingdomThe title Mx. , is widely accepted in the United Kingdom by government organisations and businesses as an alternative for nonbinary people 139 while HESA allows the use of nonbinary gender markers for students in higher education . 140 In 2015 early day motion EDM660 was registered with Parliament . 141 EDM660 calls for citizens to be permitted access to the X marker on passports . When the text of EDM660 came to light in 2016 a formal petition was launched through the Parliamentary Petitions Service calling for EDM660 to be passed into law. 142 143In September 2015 the Ministry of Justice responded to a petition calling for selfdetermination of legal gender, saying that they were not aware of any specific detriment experienced by nonbinary people unable to have their genders legally recognised. 144 In January 2016 the Trans Inquiry Report by the Women and Equalities Committee called for nonbinary people to be protected from discrimination under the Equality Act, for the X gender marker to be added to passports, and for a wholesale review into the needs of nonbinary people by the government within six months. 145 needs update Further information: Intersex rights in the United States and Transgender rights in the United StatesIn late 2016, transgender activist Jamie Shupe became the first person of nonbinary gender to receive legal recognition in the United States, based on a state court ruling.On October 26, 2015, LGBT civil rights organization Lambda Legal filed a federal discrimination lawsuit against the United States Department of State for denying navy veteran Dana Zzyym, Associate Director of Intersex Campaign for Equality , a passport because they are, and identify as, neither male nor female. 146 On November 22, 2016, the District Court for the District of Colorado ruled in favor of Zzyym, stating that the State Department violated federal law. 147 The ruling stated that the court found no evidence that the Department followed a rational decisionmaking process in deciding to implement its binaryonly gender passport policy, and ordered the U.S. Passport Agency to reconsider its earlier decision. 148On June 10, 2016, an Oregon circuit court ruled that a resident, Jamie Shupe , could legally change their gender to nonbinary. 149 Jamie Shupe was represented by civil rights lawyer Lake Perriguey. 150 The Transgender Law Center believes this to be the first ruling of its kind in the U.S. 149On September 26, 2016, intersex California resident Sara Kelly Keenan became the second person in the United States to legally change her gender to nonbinary. Keenan, who uses sheher pronouns and identifies as intersex both as my medical reality and as my gender identification, cited Shupes case as inspiration for her petition. 151In December 2016, Keenan became the first American recipient of a birth certificate with intersex listed under the category of sex. 152 In April 2017, the second intersex birth certificate (in which the recipients sex is listed as intersex) in the United States was issued to nonbinary intersex writer and activist Hida Viloria . 153On June 15, 2017, Oregon became the first state in the U.S. to announce it will allow a nonbinary X gender marker on state IDs and drivers licenses, beginning July 1. No doctors note will be required for the change. 154 The following week, Washington D.C. announced that a nonbinary X gender marker for districtissued ID cards and drivers licenses would become available later in June, with no medical certification required. 155 The D.C. policy change went into effect on June 27, making the district the first place in the U.S. to offer genderneutral drivers licenses and ID cards. 156 Also in June, legislation was introduced in New York to offer an X gender marker for residents ID cards. 155In September 2017, California passed legislation implementing a third, nonbinary gender marker on California birth certificates, drivers licenses, and identity cards. The bill, SB 179, also removes the requirements for a physicians statement and mandatory court hearing for gender change petitions. 157 158 The new designation will be available on California drivers licenses starting in 2019. 159 In December 2017, Washington state filed an adopted rule to allow a third, nonbinary X gender marker on amended birth certificates, although certificates will still be initially issued with male or female designations the rule went into effect on 27 January, 2018. 160 161Modern societies without legal recognition edit The following gender categories have also been described as a third gender:Southern Ethiopia : Ashtime of Maale culture 162Kenya : Mashoga of Swahili speaking areas of the Kenyan coast, particularly Mombasa . 163AsiaPacific edit Micronesia : Palaoana in Chamorro language, Northern Marianas Islands including Guam. 165Polynesia : Faafafine ( Samoan ), 166 fakaleiti ( Tongan ), mahu wahine ( Hawaiian ), mahu vahine ( Tahitian ), whakawahine ( New Zealand Mori ) and akavaine ( Cook Islands Mori ). 167Indonesia : Waria is a traditional third gender role found in modern Indonesia. 168 Additionally, the Bugis culture of Sulawesi has been described as having three sexes (male, female and intersex ) as well as five genders with distinct social roles. 2In Japan, Xgender is a third gender or genderqueer identity known as X. Xgender is a gender identity for people who are not expressly male or female. 169In the Philippines , a number of local sexgender identities are commonly referred to as a third sex in popular discourse, as well as by some academic studies. Local terms for these identities (which are considered derogatory by some) include bakl and binabae ( Tagalog ), bayot ( Cebuano ), agi ( Ilonggo ), bantut ( Tausug ), badng all of which refer to gay men or trans women. Gender variant females may be called lakinon or tomboy . 170Europe edit The Balkans : Sworn virgins , 12 females who work and dress as men and inhabit some menonly spaces, but do not marry.

G. PuducherryIndia is a federation composed of 29 states and 7 union territories . 193 All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi , have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act , states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. 194 Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts . The districts in turn are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.Foreign relations and militaryNarendra Modi meets Vladimir Putin at the 2017 SCO summit . India and Russia share extensive economic, defence, and technological ties .Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the 1950s, it strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a lead role in the NonAligned Movement . 195 In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of neighbouring countries: a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990 and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup dtat attempt in Maldives. India has tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan the two nations have gone to war four times : in 1947 , 1965 , 1971 , and 1999 . Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir , while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from Indias support for the independence of Bangladesh . 196 After waging the 1962 SinoIndian War and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India pursued close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier. 197Aside from ongoing strategic relations with Russia , India has wideranging defence relations with Israel and France . In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organisation . The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit , the G85 , and other multilateral forums. 198 India has close economic ties with South America , 199 Asia, and Africa it pursues a Look East policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan , and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security. 200 201INS Vikramaditya , the Indian Navys biggest warship.Chinas nuclear test of 1964 , as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons. 202 India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive NuclearTestBan Treaty nor the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty , considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. 203 India maintains a no first use nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its minimum credible deterrence doctrine. 204 205 It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifthgeneration fighter jet . 206 Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrantclass aircraft carriers and Arihantclass nuclear submarines . 206Since the end of the Cold War , India has increased its economic, strategic, and military cooperation with the United States and the European Union . 207 In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group , ending earlier restrictions on Indias nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. 208 India subsequently signed cooperation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia, 209 France, 210 the United Kingdom , 211 and Canada . 212The President of India is the supreme commander of the nations armed forces with 1.395 million active troops, they compose the worlds secondlargest military . It comprises the Indian Army , the Indian Navy , the Indian Air Force , and the Indian Coast Guard . 213 The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US36.03 billion, or 1.83 of GDP. 214 For the fiscal year spanning 20122013, US40.44 billion was budgeted. 215 According to a 2008 SIPRI report, Indias annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US72.7 billion. 216 In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6, 217 although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government. 218 As of 2012 update , India is the worlds largest arms importer between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10 of funds spent on international arms purchases. 219 Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean . 217EconomySee also: Economic History of India and Economic development in IndiaAgricultural workers involved in Rice planting. Rice production in India reached 102.75 million tons in 201112.According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2017 was nominally worth US2.454 trillion it is the sixthlargest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US9.489 trillion, the thirdlargest by purchasing power parity , or PPP. 16 With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8 over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1 during 201112, 220 India is one of the worlds fastestgrowing economies . 221 However, the country ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP . 222 Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy 223 since then it has slowly moved towards a freemarket system 224 225 by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows. 226 India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995. 227The 513.7millionworker Indian labour force is the worlds secondlargest , as of 2016 update . 213 The service sector makes up 55.6 of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3 and the agricultural sector 18.1. Indias foreign exchange remittances of US70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries. 228 Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. 193 Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software. 193 In 2006, the share of external trade in Indias GDP stood at 24, up from 6 in 1985. 224 In 2008, Indias share of world trade was 1.68 229 In 2011, India was the worlds tenthlargest importer and the nineteenthlargest exporter . 230 Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures. 193 Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals. 193 Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14 to 42. 231 India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in the calendar year 2013. 232Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5 for several years prior to 2007, 224 India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century. 233 Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985 Indias middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030. 234 Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness , India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, as of 2010 update . 235 With 7 of the worlds top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the secondmost favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, as of 2009 update . 236 Indias consumer market, the worlds eleventhlargest , is expected to become fifthlargest by 2030. 234 However, hardly 2 of Indians pay income taxes . 237Driven by growth, Indias nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US1,723 in 2016, and is expected to grow to US2,358 by 2020 16 however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others. 238According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers report, Indias GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045. 239 During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8, making it potentially the worlds fastestgrowing major economy until 2050. 239 The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing workingage population growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middleclass. 239 The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure , agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education , energy security , and public health and nutrition. 240According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th). 241IndustriesPower Loom used inside a house in a village near Salem , Tamil Nadu . Power loom accounts for more than 60 of textile production in India .Indias telecommunication industry , the worlds fastestgrowing, added 227 million subscribers during the period 201011, 242 and after the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China. 243The Indian automotive industry , the worlds second fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26 during 200910, 244 and exports by 36 during 200809. 245 Indias capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable . 246 At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US100 billion equalling 7.5 of Indian GDP and contributed 26 of Indias merchandise exports. 247The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach 48.5 billion by 2020. Indias R D spending constitutes 60 of the biopharmaceutical industry. 248 249 India is among the top 12 biotech destinations of the world. 250 251 The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1 in 201213, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion INR (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion INR (3.94 B US exchange rate June 2013: 1 US approx. 60 INR). 252Socioeconomic challengesDespite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socioeconomic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Banks international poverty line of US1.25 per day, 253 the proportion having decreased from 60 in 1981 to 42 in 2005 254 under its later revised poverty line, it was 21 in 2011. i 256 30.7 of Indias children under the age of five are underweight. 257 According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15 of the population is undernourished. 258 259 The MidDay Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates. 260According to a Walk Free Foundation report in 2016, there were 18.3 million people in India living in the forms of modern slavery , such as bonded labour , child labour , human trafficking, forced begging, among others. 261 262 263 According to 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million child labourers in 2001. 264Since 1991, economic inequality between Indias states has consistently grown: the percapita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest. 265 Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to Corruption Perceptions Index , India ranked 76th out of 176 countries in 2016, from 85th in 2014. 266DemographicsSee also: Languages of India and Religion in IndiaA handicraft seller in Hyderabad, TelanganaWith 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report , 267 India is the worlds secondmost populous country. Its population grew by 17.64 during 20012011, 268 compared to 21.54 growth in the previous decade (19912001). 268 The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males. 267 The median age was 27.6 as of 2016 update . 213 The first postcolonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people. 269 Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the Green Revolution have caused Indias population to grow rapidly. 270 India continues to face several public healthrelated challenges. 271 272Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being 69.6 years and for men being 67.3. 273 There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians. 274 The number of Indians living in urban areas has grown by 31.2 between 1991 and 2001. 275 Yet, in 2001, over 70 lived in rural areas. 276 277 The level of urbanisation increased from 27.81 in 2001 Census to 31.16 in 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991. 278 According to the 2011 census, there are 53 millionplus urban agglomerations in India among them Mumbai , Delhi , Kolkata , Chennai , Bangalore , Hyderabad and Ahmedabad , in decreasing order by population. 279 The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04: 65.46 among females and 82.14 among males. 280 The rural urban literacy gap which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas. 278 Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91 literacy while Bihar the least with 63.82. 280India is home to two major language families : IndoAryan (spoken by about 74 of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24 of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and SinoTibetan language families. India has no national language. 281 Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government. 282 283 English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a subsidiary official language 4 it is important in education , especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 scheduled languages. The Constitution of India recognises 212 scheduled tribal groups which together constitute about 7.5 of the countrys population. 284 The 2011 census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80 of the population), followed by Islam (14.23) the remaining were Christianity (2.30), Sikhism (1.72), Buddhism (0.70), Jainism (0.36) and others c (0.9). 11 India has the worlds largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian , and Bah populations , and has the thirdlargest Muslim populationthe largest for a nonMuslim majority country. 285 286CultureMain article: Culture of IndiaA Chola bronze depicting Nataraja , who is seen as a cosmic Lord of the Dance and representative of ShivaIndian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. 287 During the Vedic period (c. 1700 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy , mythology , theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhrma , krma , yga , and moka , were established. 22 India is notable for its religious diversity , with Hinduism , Buddhism , Sikhism , Islam , Christianity , and Jainism among the nations major religions. 288 The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads , 289 the Yoga Sutras , the Bhakti movement , 288 and by Buddhist philosophy . 290Art and architectureMain article: Architecture of IndiaMuch of Indian architecture , including the Taj Mahal , other works of Mughal architecture , and South Indian architecture , blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. 291 Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours. Vastu shastra , literally science of construction or architecture and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan , 292 explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings 293 it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs. 294 As applied in Hindu temple architecture , it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras , a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the VastuPurusha mandala, a square that embodied the absolute . 295 The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the worlds heritage. 296 IndoSaracenic Revival architecture , developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on IndoIslamic architecture . 297LiteratureMain article: Indian literatureThe earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1700 BCE and 1200 CE, were in the Sanskrit language. 298 299 Prominent works of this Sanskrit literature include epics such as the Mahbhrata and the Ramayana , the dramas of Klidsa such as the Abhijnakuntalam ( The Recognition of akuntal ), and poetry such as the Mahkvya . 300 301 302 Kamasutra , the famous book about sexual intercourse also originated in India. Developed between 600 BCE and 300 CE in South India, the Sangam literature , consisting of 2,381 poems, is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil literature . 303 304 305 306 From the 14th to the 18th centuries, Indias literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kabr , Tulsds , and Guru Nnak . This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. 307 In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore , 308 who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature .Performing artsMain articles: Music of India and Dance in IndiaIndian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools. 309 Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a wellknown form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the betterknown folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by Indias National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama . These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam. 310 Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. 311 Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka. 312 India has a theatre training institute N.S.D that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture , Government of India . 313Motion pictures, televisionThe Indian film industry produces the worlds mostwatched cinema. 314 Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese , Bengali , Bhojpuri , Hindi , Kannada , Malayalam , Punjabi , Gujarati , Marathi , Odia , Tamil , and Telugu languages. 315 South Indian cinema attracts more than 75 of national film revenue. 316Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a staterun medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades. 317 318 The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped popular culture of Indian society. 319 Today, television is the most penetrative media in India industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 update there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite andor cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million). 320CuisineAn assortment of Indian spicesIndian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines, often depending on a particular state (such as Maharashtrian cuisine ). Staple foods of Indian cuisine include pearl millet (bjra), rice , wholewheat flour (aa), and a variety of lentils , such as masoor (most often red lentils ), toor ( pigeon peas ), urad (black gram), and mong ( mung beans ). Lentils may be used whole, dehuskedfor example, dhuli moong or dhuli urador split. Split lentils, or dal , are used extensively. 321 The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europes Age of Discovery . 322SocietyMain article: Culture of IndiaTop: A North Indian homecooked tiffin lunch as delivered to an office by a dabbawala . Bottom: A South Indian thali style dinner as served in a restaurant.Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jtis , or castes. 323 India declared untouchability to be illegal 324 in 1947 and has since enacted other antidiscriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance. 325 326Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multigenerational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. 327 An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other elders in the family. 328 Marriage is thought to be for life, 328 and the divorce rate is extremely low. 329 As of 2001 update , just 1.6 percent of Indian women were divorced but this figure was rising due to their education and economic independence. 329 Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age. 330 Female infanticide and female foeticide in the country have caused a discrepancy in the sex ratio, as of 2005 update it was estimated that there were 50 million more males than females in the nation. 331 332 However a report from 2011 has shown improvement in the gender ratio. 333 The payment of dowry , although illegal , remains widespread across class lines. 334 Deaths resulting from dowry , mostly from bride burning , are on the rise, despite stringent antidowry laws. 335Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include Diwali , Ganesh Chaturthi , Thai Pongal , Holi , Durga Puja , Eid ulFitr , BakrId , Christmas , and Vaisakhi . 336 337 India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories Republic Day , Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti . Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states.ClothingMain article: Clothing in IndiaCotton was domesticated in India by 4000 BCE. Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men. Stitched clothes, such as the shalwar kameez for women and kurta pyjama combinations or Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. 338 Use of delicate jewellery, modelled on real flowers worn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 5,000 years gemstones are also worn in India as talismans. 339SportsMain article: Sport in IndiaGirls play hopscotch in Juara , Madhya Pradesh.In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi , kho kho , pehlwani and gillidanda . Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts , such as kalarippayattu , musti yuddha , silambam , and marma adi , originated in India. Chess , commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaga , is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters . 340 341 Pachisi , from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar . 342The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. 343 India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics , the World Shooting Championships , and the Commonwealth Games. 344 345 Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton 346 ( Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing, 347 and wrestling. 348 Football is popular in West Bengal , Goa , Tamil Nadu , Kerala , and the northeastern states . 349 India is scheduled to host the 2017 FIFA U17 World Cup . 350Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India . The Indian national hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and have, as of 2016 update , taken eight gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, making it the sports most successful team in the Olympics.India has hosted or cohosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games the 1987 , 1996 , and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments the 2003 AfroAsian Games the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy the 2010 Hockey World Cup and the 2010 Commonwealth Games . Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open , the Mumbai Marathon , the Delhi Half Marathon , and the Indian Masters . The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014. 351India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games . An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where Team India won three out of four tournaments to date. 352The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.See also

Indian Sex movies :: Nude South Actress :: South Indian Girls :: South Indian Porn ::Copyright SouthIndianSex.com :: All Rights Reserved. :: Contact :: 2257 Notice This site isnt responsible for content displayed on links listed above! Please look for SouthIndianSex.com not SouthIndianSex.com or IndiaSex.com Indian Sex scandals from Dhaka, Tamil blue film tape, Dehli Sex Scandals and indian sex scenes from Calcutta Sex videos and Islamabad NetCafe Scandals with hot Pakistani webcam models. Telugu MMS Sex clips and Indian Desi Girls in youtube sex streams from India. Masti clips and Indian MMS webcam sex for Free Movie Download. Indian couple sex vids and Masala masti ke chudai webcam Sex Movies in mpg, avi, 3gp, mp4, avi for torrent and rapidshare download. Indian Tube Movies with Indian MMS scandals from netcafe cam sex filmed with hidden webcam with hot dark Babes from South India. Hot India amateur girls in Tamil girls sex movies!

Heres Why We Desperately Need More Women As Political Leaders In IndiaSUBSCRIBE AND FOLLOWGet top stories and blog posts emailed to me each day. Newsletters may offer personalized content or advertisements. Learn moreNewsletterPlease enter a valid email addressThank you for signing up! You should receive an email to confirm your subscription shortly.There was a problem processing your signup please try again later

When a lustful guy like you lands at Indian Dildo Xxx Tube, he or she suddenly realizes that too much time and money was wasted in vain. Welcome to the largest free India Sex Tube in the world where you will not find stupid Indianna porn full of fake shouts that are supposed to show incredible fucking pleasure. Check out numerous mindblowing Sex Videos from dozens of xxx categories!

ResultsAT A GLANCEReal GDP slowed growth this past quarter but overall annual growth for fiscal year 201718 is expected to rebound to an annual rate of 7.0 . Public finances remain stable, though there has been an increase in subnational debt levels. The key mediumterm risk is the need for recovery in private investment.India is governed by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)led National Democratic Alliance following its victory in May 2014 national elections. The BJP, either outright or in coalition with other parties, now holds power in 14 states comprising 68 of Indias population. National elections are scheduled for 2019.The WBG program consists of 106 lending operations with 26.7 billion in commitments from the Bank and an IFC portfolio of 5.6 billion. Middle income India is no longer an IDA recipient. The WBG is formulating a new Country Partnership Framework to be completed this fiscal year.COUNTRY CONTEXTPrime Minister Narendra Modis BJP demonstrated sustained strength in state elections in FebruaryMarch 2017, building on the national electoral victory scored by the BJPled National Democratic Alliance in May 2014. After recent elections in the largest state, Uttar Pradesh, home to one in six Indians, BJP took 75 of the seats in the state legislature. With other results and changes in statelevel coalitions, the BJP is in power in 11 states on its own and inthree others in an alliance with a regional party and governs about 68 of Indias population. National elections are next scheduled for 2019.Key issues confronting the Indian government include ensuring high growth levels, fostering faster job creation, addressing distress in the agricultural sector, and strengthening implementation of flagship government programs.RECENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSPoverty has declined since 20045 although temporary disruptions from demonetization and depressed food prices may have moderated the pace in the short term. Real GDP growth slowed to 7.1 in FY1617 from 8 in FY1516, and to 5.7 in Q1 FY1718. Despite the increase in public and private consumption due to the revival of rural demand after a normal monsoon and the implementation of the 7th central pay commission recommendations, overall demand slowed as investments remained weak. Excluding agriculture, output growth experienced a slowdown compared to the previous year. Construction, real estate, and manufacturing were particularly affected.Poverty has declined since 200405 although shortterm disruptions from demonetization and depressed food prices may have moderated the pace. Evidence suggests that demand for social insurance (MGNREGS) increased during demonetization.External accounts remain robust. Export growth turned positive in FY1617, supported largely by a reversal in commodity prices and improvements in global trade. Imports have begun a gradual recovery the merchandise trade deficit is rising. Overall capital flows gained momentum, due to ease in FDI policies and continued global liquidity. Foreign reserves rose to 386bn or 8.6 months of imports. The currency appreciated in 2017, in sync with many other emerging economies, partly due to US dollar weakening.Public finances remain stable, although contingent liabilities are rising. The central government stuck to its fiscal targets in FY1617, reaffirming fiscal credibility. The quality of expenditures at the general government level has shifted towards productive infrastructure spending in recent years, providing an additional stimulus to growth. However, fiscal deficits at the subnational level have risen from an aggregate of 2.6 in FY1215 to 3.7 in FY1617 largely because of a transfer of some public sector enterprise liabilities to direct debt of states.ECONOMIC OUTLOOKEconomic activity is expected to stabilize, maintaining annual GDP growth at 7.0 in FY18. Growth is projected to increase to 7.4 by FY20, underpinned by a recovery in private investments prompted by a recent increase in publiccapexand an improvement in the investment climate (partly due to passage of the GST and the Bankruptcy Code, and measures to attract FDI).Inflation and external conditions are expected to remain stable. Supported by RBIs inflation targeting policy, two consecutive years of normal monsoons will further stabilize prices and offset any increase in global oil prices. The dollarrupee exchange rate has appreciated, further adding to a low inflation scenario.The biggest mediumterm risks are associated with the recovery in private investments which continues to face several domestic impediments including the corporate debt overhang and regulatory and policy challenges, along with the risk of an imminent increase in US interest ratesLast Updated:Oct 11, 2017THE WORLD BANK GROUP AND INDIAThe World Bank Group (WBG) partnership with India is strong and enduring, spanning nearly six decades. The WBGs financing, analytical work, and advisory services have contributed to the countrys development since the first International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan to Indian Railways in 1949. WBGsupported activities have had a considerable impact on universalizing primary education, empowering rural communities through a series of rural livelihoods projects, revolutionizing agriculture through support of the Greenand more recently White (milk)Revolutions, supporting Indias ambitious expansion of renewable energy, and helping to combat polio, tuberculosis, and HIVAIDS. A major milestone in the relationship was reached with India fully graduating from eligibility for International Development Association financing as of FY18.The WBG is formulating a new Country Partnership Framework with the conclusion of its FY 201317 Country Partnership Strategy and completion of a Systematic Country Diagnostic.Under its recently completed strategy, WBG supported Indian authorities in achieving substantial results in three strategic areas of integration, urbanrural transformation, and inclusion with sustainability, governance, and gender issues cutting across the entire program. WBGs activities also shifted to more statelevel engagement, particularly inLow Income Stateswhich are home to over 60 of Indias poor. The number of WBGfinanced operations in such states nearly doubled in terms of commitment volumes.The new Country Partnership Framework will build on the WBG partnership with India in the context of a dynamically developing country which has recorded strong growth and poverty reduction in recent years and which aspires to foster a large middle class. The Framework will draw on the analysis in the recently completed Systematic Country Diagnostic identified three major paths to end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity: providing for resourceefficient growth, creating jobs and investing in people, and increasing state capacity.WORLD BANK GROUP PROGRAMThe WBG partners with India to help provide platforms for growth, harness benefits from the countrys spatial transformation and increase its human development potential. The Groups lending portfolio consists of 106 operations with 26.7 billion in commitments, of which 15.0 billion is IBRD, 11.6 billion is IDA, and 0.1 billion is from other sources, primarily the Global Environment Fund. Reflecting a strong, deepening partnership, overall lending commitments have grown by 19 over the past five years.WBGs engagement in India comprises operations in sectors represented by all but two Global Practices, with the largest proportions accounted for by the transport (6.9 billion), water and sanitation (5.2 billion), and energy (2.6 billion) sectors. Spearheaded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and WBG President Jim Yong Kim, the Group is focusing on bringing financing and cuttingedge global knowledge to bear in eight priority areas: rejuvenating the Ganga river developing smart cities and improving urban service delivery improving rural sanitation and ending open defecation providing 247 electricity, including an ambitious push on solar energy providing youth with training and skills development modernizing Indias massive railway system and improving the countrys business climate.WBGs engagement has geographically been rebalanced towards the Low Income andor Special Category states, which collectively are home to over 60 of the poor and in most cases have economic growth and human development outcomes which have stubbornly lagged behind other states. Approximately onethird of lending commitments now target benefits specifically to these states and nearly 40 of upcoming operations are at the state level in these states.The WBG has a strong analytical program supporting formulation of policy and addressing implementation challenges across sectors. Highlights include support for statelevel business climate reforms, analysis to understand constraints to agribusiness development which is underpinning new agriculture operations and development of statelevel health insurance schemes. Sector analytical work was integral to producing the Systematic Country Diagnostic.WORLD BANK IFC COLLABORATIONThe Bank and IFC work together in several areas, most notably in energy, transport, and health. IFCBank synergies have been particularly strong in raising financing for renewable energy, highlighted by the Government of Madhya Pradeshs decision to set up the largest singlesite solar power project at record low cost in 2017. India continues to remain the largest country in IFCs investment portfolio, making up 10 of IFCs committed portfolio in FY17. As of Fiscal yearendJune 30, 2017, IFCs committed own account portfolio in India stood at 5.6 billion, growing at a much faster pace than IFCs average growth.MIGAThe Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) does not have exposure in India. It is presently engaging with the Government of India to explore opportunities to employ its guarantees in potential transport projects.Last Updated:Oct 11, 2017The World Bank Groups past support to Indias development agenda has contributed to improving outcomes in a range of sectors. Some results are highlighted below:Between 2001 and 2009, IndiasEducationfor All Program enrolled some 20 million outofschool children, especially girls and children from socially disadvantaged families. By 2009, the number of outofschool children had fallen to about 8.1 million. Over 98 of Indias children now have access to a primary school within 1 kilometer of their home. The focus is now on improving the quality of learning, retaining children in school, and ensuring that more children are able to access and complete secondary education.World Bank support forvocational training programsin select institutions has helped more graduates to find jobs, with their numbers rising from just 32 in 2006 to over 60 in 2011. Nevertheless, empowering the large numbers of Indias youth, especially in rural areas, with skills that are better matched with the demands of the labor marketwhether informal or formalwill help them find jobs in the urban areas where betterpaid work is more readily available.Rural livelihood programshave mobilized more than 30 million poor households in 90,000 villages to form 1.2 million selfhelp groups (SHGs)up from 8 million in 2009. Ninetyfive percent of SHG participants are women. In Andhra Pradesh alone, 10 million SHG women have seen their incomes rise by 115. Members savings exceeded 1.1 billion (2011) and access to credit rose by 200 to touch 5.8 billion (200009). Support has also results in 3040 higher prices for SHG products, tilting the terms of the trade in favor of poor people in India.Over past two decades, World Bank projects have contributed over 1.4 billion in financing forrural water supply and sanitation. About 24 million people in over 15,000 villageswith populations ranging from 150 to 15,000have benefited from these programs. In addition, some 17 million rural people have benefitted from improved sanitation.India has the largest burden oftuberculosis(TB) in the world. There are an estimated 2.2 million new TB cases in India every year, accounting for a quarter of the global burden. Between 1998 and 2012, two IDA credits totaling 279 million provided significant support to scaleup effective diagnosis and treatment under the national TB control program. During that period, over 15 million people with TB were diagnosed and treated by the program, saving an estimated 2.6 million lives. And, to date, the World Bank supported National AIDS program has reached about 81 of female sex workers, 66 of men having sex with men and 71 of injecting drug users, with targeted interventions. However, continued attention is needed to secure these gains.World Bank support forhealthprojects has helped pregnant women to reach medical facilities in time for delivery in Tamil Nadu, 99.5 of deliveries now take place in medical institutions. However, despite increasing rates of decline, maternal and child mortality rates remain on par with rates in much poorer countries. And while India has recorded impressive economic growth in the past decade, malnutrition rates has declined very little in fact, stunting rates in India are two to seven times higher than those in other BRICS countries.From September 2004, World Bank support of some 2 billion is helping Indias NationalRural RoadsProgram to improve connectivity, especially in the economically weaker regions and hill states. Some 24,200 km of allweather roads have benefitted rural people in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. However, much more remains to be done onethird of the rural population still lacks access to an allweather road.Over the past decade or so, World Bank support for improving farmer incomes fromrainfed landsin Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand have helped implement soil and water conservation measures and raise agricultural productivity. Lessons learnt have helped shape the Government of Indias Common Watershed Guidelines and the design of national watershed programs.Since 1993, twoSodic Lands Reclamation Projectsin Uttar Pradesh have brought more than 260,000 hectares of barren or unproductive lands under cultivation. Over 425,000 poor families have benefitted from a three to six fold increase in crop yields. Around 15,000 SHGs have helped the women pool savings and connect to the formal banking network. In several villages, these SHGs now manage the midday meal provided in local state schools under a government program. A 197 million World Bank credit is now supporting the third phase of the project that aims to reclaim another 130,000 hectares of predominantly barren and low productivity sodic lands in about 25 districts of the state.Api